In the great inflation after WWI the German mark falls to a price of 4 billion per dollar. During a period between 1918 and January 1924, the German mark suffered hyperinflation. It caused considerable internal political instability in the country, the occupation of the Ruhr by foreign troops as well as misery for the general populace. To pay for the large costs of the ongoing First World War, Germany suspended the gold standard (the convertibility of its currency to gold) when the war broke out. Unlike the French Third Republic, which imposed its first income tax to pay for the war, German Emperor Wilhelm II and the German parliament decided unanimously to fund the war entirely by borrowing, a decision criticized by financial experts such as Hjalmar Schacht as a dangerous risk for currency devaluation.
By fall 1922, Germany found itself unable to make reparations payments. The mark was by now practically worthless, making it impossible for Germany to buy foreign exchange or gold using paper marks. Instead, reparations were to be paid in goods such as coal. In January 1923, French and Belgian troops occupied the industrial region of Germany in the Ruhr valley to ensure reparations payments. Inflation was exacerbated when workers in the Ruhr went on a general strike and the German government printed more money to continue paying for their passive resistance. By November 1923, the US dollar was worth 4,210,500,000,000 German marks.
In the spirit of Martin Middlebrook’s classic First Day on the Somme, Craig Luther narrates the events of June 22, 1941, a day when German military might was at its peak and seemed as though it would easily conquer the Soviet Union, a day the common soldiers would remember for its tension and the frogs bellowing in the Polish marshlands. It was a day when the German blitzkrieg decimated Soviet command and control within hours and seemed like nothing would stop it from taking Moscow. Luther narrates June 22—one of the pivotal days of World War II—from high command down to the tanks and soldiers at the sharp end, covering strategy as well as tactics and the vivid personal stories of the men who crossed the border into the Soviet Union that fateful day, which is the Eastern Front in microcosm, representing the years of industrial-scale warfare that followed and the unremitting hostility of Germans and Soviets. In his endorsement of the book Victor Davis Hanson writes: “Craig Luther’s [new book] continues his invaluable explorations of he disastrous German invasion of the Soviet Union, by focusing on the first day of Operation Barbarossa . . . A rich scholarly resource that historians of the Eastern Front will find invaluable.”
The book will be released by Stackpole Books on 1 November 2018.
This book examines in unprecedented detail the advance of Germany’s Army Group Center through central Russia, toward Moscow, in the summer of 1941, followed by brief accounts of the Battle of Moscow and subsequent winter battles into early 1942. Based on hundreds of veterans accounts, archival documents, and exhaustive study of the pertinent primary and secondary literature, the book offers new insights into Operation Barbarossa, Adolf Hitler s attack on Soviet Russia in June 1941. While the book meticulously explores the experiences of the German soldier in Russia, in the cauldron battles along the Minsk-Smolensk-Moscow axis, it places their experiences squarely within the strategic and operational context of the Barbarossa campaign. Controversial subjects, such as the culpability of the German eastern armies in war crimes against the Russian people, are also examined in detail. This book is the most detailed account to date of virtually all aspects of the German soldiers experiences in Russia in 1941. Writes eastern front historian David Stahel in his review of the book: “The combination of ‘top down’ and ‘bottom up’ approaches makes Luther’s work a landmark study of Operation Barbarossa.” (War in History)
Based on great reviews, we recommend this book. You can find the book at these places for sale:
Birth of Paul von Hindenburg in Posen, Germany (now in Poland). Von Hindenburg had been a general and became the president of the Weimar Republic(Germany from the end of WWI to the rise of Hitler). Hindenburg became president in 1925 upon the death of the first president of the Republic, Friedrich Ebert. In 1933 he appointed Hitler chancellor, thinking that the man and his party could be controlled and thus be useful. Hindenburg died in office in 1934.
• Historical Society of German Military History Collection of Memorabilia
• Invasion of Poland
• Battle of Norway
• Eastern Front
• Operation Barbarossa – Invasion of the Soviet Union
• Battle of the Atlantic
• Destruction of Germany During and After the War
• German Army
• Afrika Korps
• Foreign Troops in the Wehrmacht
• StuG III
• Sd.Kfz. 251 – Sonderkraftfahrzeug 251
• Sd.Kfz. 3-4, 6-9, 11, 222, 231-232, 234, 247, 252-254, 261, & 265
• Volkswagen Kübelwagen
• Hand Held Infantry Weapons or Light Equipment of WW2
• MG 34 – Maschinengewehr 34
• Luftwaffe 1933-1946
• Luftwaffe Divisions and Groups
• Messerschmitt Bf 109
• Messerschmitt Bf 110
• World War 2 Generals – A thru E
• Luftwaffe Field Marshalls
• Luftwaffe Generals
• Luftwaffe Pilots & Airmen – A thru G
• Luftwaffe Pilots & Airmen – H thru M
• WW2 Allies – Romania
• WW2 Allies – Bulgaria
• Nuremberg Trials
• Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring
• Order of Battle – Waffen-SS Divisions & Other Units
• SS Generals – A thru L
• SS Officers, NCOs, and Men – A thru G
• SS-Officers, NCOs, and Men – H thru K
• Military Ceremonies and Rallies of the Third Reich
• September 1938 – Munich Agreement & Annexation of the Sudentenland
• Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
A new East German (DDR) flag is introduced. It features a hammer and a compass surrounded by a ring of rye. The hammer represented the workers in the factories. The compass represented the intelligentsia, and the ring of rye – the farmers. The display of the national emblem was for some years regarded as unconstitutional in West Germany and West Berlin and was prevented by the police. Only in 1969 did the West German government of Willy Brandt reverse this policy in what was known as Ostpolitik.
Largest Collection of Photos and Images of German History in the World with a focus on World War II.