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The Condor Legion (German: Legion Condor) was a unit composed of volunteers from the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) and from the German Army (Wehrmacht Heer) which served with the Nationalists during the Spanish Civil War of July 1936 to March 1939. The Condor Legion developed methods of terror bombing which were used widely in the Second World War shortly afterwards. The bombing of Guernica was the most infamous operation carried out by the Condor Legion. Hugo Sperrle commanded the unit’s aircraft formations and Wilhelm Ritter von Thoma commanded the ground element.
Fallschirm-Panzer Division 1 Hermann Göring
The Fallschirm-Panzer-Division 1. Hermann Göring (1st Paratroop Panzer Division Hermann Göring – abbreviated Fallschirm-Panzer-Div 1 HG) was a German Luftwaffe armoured division. The HG saw action in North Africa, Sicily, Italy and on the Eastern Front. The division was the creation of Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring and increased in size throughout the war from an Abteilung (battalion) to a Panzer corps.
Jagdgeschwader 5 (JG 5) was a Luftwaffe fighter wing during World War II. It was created to operate in the far North of Europe, namely Norway, Scandinavia and northern parts of Finland, all nearest the Arctic Ocean, with Luftflotte 5, created specifically to be based in Occupied Norway, and responsible for much of northern Norway.
Jagdgeschwader 11 (JG 11) was a German fighter wing (German: Jagdgeschwader) of the Luftwaffe during World War II. Its primary role was the defense of Northern Germany against Allied day bomber raids. Formed in April 1943, the unit primarily used the Messerschmitt Bf 109 and Focke-Wulf Fw 190.
The growing daylight bomber offensive of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) 8th Air Force forced the Luftwaffe to augment its day fighter strength. It countered these bombing raids by expanding the number of daylight fighter units assigned to the Defense of the Reich (German: Reichsverteidigung). Due to a scarcity of resources and trained pilots, the Luftwaffe increased its strength by splitting Jagdgeschwader 1 to form Jagdgeschwader 11 (JG 11). JG 11 was initially based along the North German coast, protecting the northern flank of occupied Europe. During the summer of 1943, as the unescorted bombers penetrated deeper into Germany, JG 11 saw intensive action, with about 40 percent of some 1,200 ‘kill’ claims submitted by the Western Front fighter wings in this period being credited to JG 1 and JG 11 .
JG 11 trialled new tactics such as dropping 250 kg bombs on top of the bomber formations or using the heavy-calibre Werfer-Granate 21 unguided, underwing-launched rockets. In spring of 1944 the introduction of P-51 Mustang made the job of units such as JG 11 ,very difficult as they fought through the escorts to reach the bombers. Several measures were introduced to counter the bomber offensive such as the introduction of Bf 109–G high altitude aircraft with a pressurized cockpit.
In January 1945, the Luftwaffe made a last-ditch counterattack to stem the Allied offensives with Operation Baseplate. JG 11 targeted the USAAF base at Asch called Y–29 and Ophoven. What followed became known as the “Legend of Y–29”. JG 11 lost its commander and several group commanders with many pilots. In mid 1945 JG 11 moved to Poland, although it later withdrew back to the Western Front and surrendered to British forces in early May 1945.
Jagdgeschwader 26 (JG 26) Schlageter was a Luftwaffe fighter-wing of World War II. It operated mainly in Western Europe against Great Britain, France the United States but also saw service against the USSR. It was named after Albert Leo Schlageter, a World War I veteran and Freikorps member arrested and executed by the French for sabotage in 1923.
Jagdgeschwader 54 (JG 54) was a Luftwaffe fighter wing during the Second World War, which was the second highest scoring wing of all time, JG 52 being the highest. JG 54 flew on the Eastern Front claiming over 9,600 aircraft shot down, with pilots such as Walter Nowotny, Otto Kittel, Max-Hellmuth Ostermann and Hannes Trautloft being termed experten.
Having participated in the air battles over the Channel and South-east England during the summer of 1940, the unit was transferred to the Eastern Front in the spring of 1941 for Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union. JG 54 first flew Bf 109Fs and then the Fw 190.
Lehrgeschwader 2 (LG 2) (Demonstration Wing 2) was a Luftwaffe unit during World War II, operating three fighter, night fighter, reconnaissance and ground support Gruppen (groups).
Lehrgeschwader were in general mixed-formation units tasked with the operational evaluation of new types of aircraft and/or with the development/evaluation of new operational tactics or practices. Each Gruppe within the unit was equipped with a different type of aircraft. Each Gruppe consisted of several Staffeln (squadrons). The Gruppe was identified by Roman numbers (I./LG 2) and the Staffel by Arabic numbers (10./LG 2).
In 1939, Lehrgeschwader 2 thus consisted of a Bf 109 fighter Gruppe (designated I.(J)/LG 2), a Henschel Hs 123 ground assault Gruppe (II.(Schl.)/LG 2), and a reconnaissance Gruppe (III.(Aufkl.)/LG 2).
Schlachtgeschwader 1 (SchlG 1, since 1943 rather SG 1) was a German ground-attack wing during World War II. The first formation was on 13 January 1942, from the II.(Schl)/Lehrgeschwader 2, initially with two Gruppen each made of four Staffeln. The second formation was on 18 October 1943, by renaming the existing Sturzkampfgeschwader 1 (StG 1). The new unit’s name became abbreviated simply SG 1.