The Holy Roman Empire (10th century – 1806, known as the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation after 1512) did not have a national flag, but black and gold were used as colours of the Holy Roman Emperor and featured in the imperial banner: a black eagle on a golden background. After the late 13th or early 14th century, the claws and beak of the eagle were coloured red. From the early 15th century, a double-headed eagle was used.
War flag of the Holy Roman Empire (13th–14th century).
Otto 1 Holy Roman Empire boundaries.
Map of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation in 1600 (in today’s state borders).
Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor.
Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor.
Otto I, Holy Roman emperor and his family.
Holy Roman emperor Otto is having leader Bulcsú executed, 955.
Otto I and his wife’s statue in Magdeburg.
Holy Roman Emperor Konrad II
Holy Roman emperor, Conrad II’s picture on his seal.
Holy Roman emperor, Henry II’s picture from his book of sacraments.
Henry IV begging Matilda of Canossa.
Count Heinrich II of Virneburg, 1244 or 1246 – January 1332, was Archbishop of Cologne from 1304 to his death in 1332.
Arnim-Boitzenburg, the first ‘German’ field marshal.
Battle of Zenta, Sept. 11, 1697, decisive military victory of Austrian forces over an Ottoman army at Zenta.
The Imperial Crown of the kings of the Holy Roman Empire.
Grave of Otto III. in the Aachen Cathedral.
Martin Luther initiated the Protestant Reformation.
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827), composer.