November 9 in German History

November 9, 1918

The resignation of Kaiser Wilhelm II as a consequence of the German loss in WWI. He flees to the Netherlands. A socialist government takes control.

November 9, 1918

In the face of the chaotic conditions in Germany and the threat of a leftist revolution, Philipp Scheidemann addresses a crowd from a balcony of the Reichstag and announces the formation of a republican form of government for Germany. In reality, he had no authorization to do so. Neither the government nor even his own party had agreed to such a decision. But once the announcement had been made, conditions were such that none were able to withdraw from the perception and the Weimar Republic came into existence.

November 9, 1923

Hitler stages a takeover march in Münich with 3,000 Nazis which is halted with gunfire by the police.

Kristallnacht or Reichskristallnacht, also referred to as the Night of Broken Glass, Reichspogromnacht or simply Pogromnacht, and Novemberpogrome, was a pogrom against Jews throughout Nazi Germany on 9–10 November 1938, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and German civilians. Over 250 synagogues are desecrated, over 7,000 shops are destroyed, 91 Jews are murdered, 20,000 persons are arrested. The cynical term “Kristalnacht” refers to the shop windows which were broken.

November 9, 1940

Germany invades Norway and Denmark in World War II.

November 9, 1989

The border between East Germany and West Germany is opened. During the night of November 9 thousands of East Germans flood into West Berlin.

November 9, 1992

Helmut Kohl, Michail Gorbatschov and Ronald Reagan are made honorary citizens of Berlin for their contributions to German.