22 January in German History

1758

Konigsberg is occupied by Russia. Prussia had lost the battle at Groß Jagersdorf against Russia. As a result, the Prussian city of Konigsberg was occupied by Russia from 1758-1762. It was taken by Russia again at the end of World War II and remains a Russian city with the name of Kaliningrad.

1877

Birth of Hjalmar Schacht (1877-1970) in Tinglev, Germany. A banker, Schacht was a key figure in German financial matters from the beginning of the century through World War I and the Weimar Republic into the National Socialist period. Schacht had been the director of the Dresdner Bank from 1908. In 1916 he was named the director of the German National Bank. In 1923 he was currency commissioner in the finance ministry. In that position, he headed a rigorous program to stop the inflation and stabilize the mark. Also in 1923, he was appointed the head of the Reichsbank. From 1934 to 1937 he was the Minister of Economics.

Since he opposed the policy of German re-armament spearheaded by Hitler and other prominent Nazis, Schacht was first sidelined and then forced out of the Third Reich government beginning in December 1937, therefore he had no role during World War II. He became a fringe member of the German Resistance to Hitler and was imprisoned by the Nazis after the plot of 20 July 1944. After the war, he was tried at Nuremberg and acquitted.

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