- Birth of Friedrich von Esmarch, 1823-1908, in Tönning, Germany. Esmarch was a military surgeon and a professor of surgery at the University of Kiel. He wrote a handbook on first aid for civilians and military uses and introduced the first-aid bandage. Esmarch bandage is designed to act as a tourniquet to restrict the flow of blood into a limb in order to limit blood loss on the battlefield. When the Franco-Prussian War broke out in 1870, he was appointed surgeon-general to the army, and afterward consulting surgeon at the great military hospital near Berlin. In 1872, Esmarch married Princess Caroline Christiane Auguste Emilie Henriette Elisabeth of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg, 1833–1917. In 1887 a patent of nobility was conferred on Esmarch.