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17 February – Today in German History

1855

  • Birth of Otto Liman von Sanders in Stolp, Germany. In 1913 Liman, a German general was appointed the head of the German military mission in Turkey with the purpose of reorganizing and building the Turkish army. His major victory was at the head of the Turkish 5th Army which forced the British and Australian troops out of the Dardanelles in World War I.

1912

  • Death of Graf Lexa von Aehrenthal in Vienna. He was the Austro-Hungarian foreign minister at the time of the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908.

1915

After encountering a severe snowstorm on the evening of February 17, 1915, the German zeppelin L-4 crash-lands in the North Sea near the Danish coastal town of Varde. The L-4‘s captain, Count Platen-Hallermund, and a crew of 14 men had completed a routine scouting mission off the Norwegian coast in search of Allied merchant vessels and were returning to their base in Hamburg, Germany, when the snowstorm flared up, bombarding the airship with gale-force winds. Unable to control the zeppelin in the face of such strong winds, the crew steered toward the Danish coast for an emergency landing but was unable to reach the shore before crashing into the North Sea. The Danish coast guard rescued 11 members of the crew who had abandoned ship and jumped into the sea prior to the crash; they were brought to Odense as prisoners to be interrogated. Four members of the crew were believed drowned and their bodies were never recovered. One month earlier, the L-4 had taken part in the first-ever air raid on Britain in January 1915, when it and two other zeppelins dropped bombs on the towns of Great Yarmouth and King’s Lynn on the eastern coast of England. Four civilians were killed in the raid, two in each town. Zeppelins would continue to wreak destruction on Germany’s enemies throughout the next several years of war–by May 1916, 550 British civilians had been killed by aerial bombs.

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Normandy Commanders – Featured Picture

Three senior German commanders in the Battle against Allied troops in St.-Lô area, Normandy, 16 July 1944. From left to right: General der Fallschirmtruppe Eugen Meindl, SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Waffen-SS Paul Hausser, and Generalleutnant Dipl.Ing. Richard Schimpf. Behind Schimpf is SS-Hauptsturmführer Karl-Heinz Boska. In this meeting Meindl told his commander, Hausser, that the German defense position at St.-Lô was untenable any longer due to the superiority of the Allied forces on land and in the air. The next day Hausser forwarded this message to his commander, Generalfeldmarschall Erwin Rommel.
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15 February – Today in German History

1368

  • Birth of Sigismund, the Holy Roman Emperor from 1433-1437, near Nürnberg, Germany. He was the last emperor of the House of Luxembourg. In 1396, he assembled and led an army against the Turks, who had penetrated as far as Serbia, but he was badly defeated in the campaign. It was Sigismund who invited Jan Hus to the Church Council of Constance to defend his views. After his appearance, Hus was burned for heresy. In 1428, Sigismund led another crusade against the Turks but was defeated again.

1637

  • Death of the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II, in Vienna, Austria. Ferdinand was the leading proponent of the Catholic Counter-Reformation and defender of the absolutist rule in the 30 Years’ War.

 

 

 

 

 

1818

  • Death of Friedrich Ludwig Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen in Silesia. Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen was a general of the Prussian army in the battle against Napoleon at Jena in 1806 in which the Prussian army was crushed and Prussia became a dependency of France.
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Bombing of Dresden – 13-14 Feb 1945

Early in 1945, Allied commanders gathered to plan Thunderclap, a new plan to strategically bomb Germany, particularly to aid the advance of Soviet troops. They argued that carpet bombing of large cities in eastern Germany would allow Soviet troops to exploit the confusion that would ensue, hampering the movement of German troops from the west of the target cities. On 27 Jan 1945, given the Allied Joint Intelligence Command’s conclusion that the Germans could reinforce the Eastern Front with half a million men which is up to 42 divisions, Sir Archibald Sinclair of the RAF sent Churchill the recommendation of bombing Berlin, Dresden, Chemnitz, Leipzig, or other large cities with available resources, in order to hinder efficient enemy movement should such a reinforcement be ordered by Berlin. The interception of Enigma-coded messages confirmed that such movements were likely. Documents dated 4 Feb revealed that RAF bombing priority list was, in a specific order:

  • Cities with oil production facilities, such as Politz, Ruhland, and Vienna.
  • Cities that were considered transportation hubs or with considerable industrial facilities, such as Berlin and Dresden.
  • Cities with factories capable of producing tanks, self-propelled guns, and jet engines.

In sum, the official documents, as well as the Yalta Conference discussions, noted the goal of the strategic bombings was to disrupt enemy communications and other military or industrial goals, not to kill evacuees. However, rumors of off the record discussions ran rampant. For example, British Air Commodore Grierson was accused of saying that after the bombing of Dresden that the aim of Thunderclap was the bomb large population centers to disrupt the logistics of relief supplies.

Dresden was the capital of the state of Saxony, situated on the Elbe River. It was a cultural center, containing famous landmarks as the Frauenkirche, and was dubbed the Florence of the Elbe. The population of the city was largely anyone’s guess as refugees flooded into the city shortly prior to the bombing as Soviet troops advanced to the city’s east, however common estimates put the population at the time of bombings at greater than 650,000.
The attacks were originally planned to start with a raid by the US Eighth Air Force, but the weather prevented the American bombers from taking off. During the night of 13-14 Feb, 796 British Lancaster and 9 Mosquito aircraft were displaced and dropped 1478 tons of high explosive and 1182 tons of incendiary bombs on the first bombing run and 800 tons of bombs on the second run. The incendiary bombs contained combustible chemicals such as magnesium, phosphorus, or petroleum jelly/napalm. There were claims that due to the extreme temperatures inside buildings caused by the tremendous fires, air currents were formed where people fleeing would be sucked into the burning buildings. 3 hours later, 529 Lancaster bombers dropped 1800 tons of bombs. On the next day, 311 American B-17 bombers dropped 771 tons of bombs while the escort Mustang fighters strafed traffic with no distinction between military and civilian on the streets to cause further havoc. Some reports indicate that civilians fleeing the bombing were strafed by American fighter pilots, but these reports are largely without solid evidence.

Margaret Freyer, a Dresden resident, recalled:

The firestorm is incredible, there are calls for help and screams from somewhere but all around is one single inferno. To my left, I suddenly see a woman. I can see her to this day and shall never forget it. She carries a bundle in her arms, it is her baby. She runs, she falls, and the child flies in an arc into the fire…. Insane fear grips me and from then on I repeat one simple sentence to myself, ‘I don’t want to burn to death’.

Lothar Metzger, another Dresden resident who was only nine years old at the time, recalled:

We did not recognize our street anymore. Fire, only fire wherever we looked. Our 4th floor did not exist anymore. The broken remains of our house were burning. On the streets, there were burning vehicles and carts with refugees, people, horses, all of them screaming and shouting in fear of death. I saw hurt women, children, old people searching a way through ruins and flames…. (A)ll the time the hot wind of the firestorm threw people back into the burning houses they were trying to escape from. I cannot forget these terrible details. I can never forget them.

Prior to this bombing, Allied bombers had already bombed Dresden railways twice on 7 October 1944 and 16 January 1945. After the massive bombings on 13-14 Feb 1945, American bombers once again bombed Dresden on 2 Mar 1945.

The bombing methods used by the Allied were to encourage total destruction of buildings: the high explosive bombs first expose the wood frames of buildings, then the incendiary bombs ignite the wood, and finally followed by various explosives to hamper the firefighting efforts. The results were devastating. 24,866 out of 28,410 houses in the inner city of Dresden were destroyed, many of the schools, hospitals, and churches. The estimate of deaths ranges from 25,000 to more than 60,000. The official German report stated 25,000 estimated with 21,271 registered burials.

Roy Akehurst, a wireless operator in an RAF bomber crew, was struck by the destruction that he had help caused:

It struck me at the time, the thought of the women and children down there. We seemed to fly for hours over a sheet of fire, a terrific red glow with a thin haze over it. I found myself making comments to the crew ‘Oh God, those poor people’. It was completely uncalled for. You can’t justify it.

The civilian deaths at Dresden would be used by two political machines as propaganda. First, the Nazi Propaganda Ministry would attempt to use this to stir public resentment against the Allied invaders. Then during the Cold War, Soviet propaganda would describe this bombing as western cruelty, alienating the East Germans with the British and Americans. Churchill, too, started to feel guilty of the widespread destruction the western Allies had caused in Germany, even though he was an early proponent of bombing German cities. In a memorandum sent to Harris, Churchill noted that:

It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of bombing of German cities simply for the sake of increasing terror, should be reviewed…. I feel the need for more precise concentration upon military objectives…, rather than on mere acts of terror and wanton destruction.

Although Dresden did not see particularly more attacks when compared to other German cities, the ideal weather conditions and the common usage of the wooden structures made the destruction more widespread. The lack of anti-aircraft fire also contributed to the higher level of destruction, as Germany did not defend her with anti-aircraft guns as Dresden was far from Allied bomber bases, at least earlier in the war. However, contrary to that statement, a study conducted by the United States Air Force indicated that Dresden was indeed defended by anti-aircraft guns, operated by the Combined Dresden and Berlin Luftwaffe Administration Commands.

In recent history, German historian Joerg Freidrich suggested that the Dresden bombings might be considered a war crime. German sources often suggest Dresden, even during wartime, was nothing more than a cultural center. However, Allied reports indicated the presence of the Zeiss-Ikon optical factory and Siemens glass factory which produced gun sights, and other factories building radar, anti-aircraft shell fuses, gas masks, fighter engines, and various fighter parts. The proponents of the war crimes argument claimed that Dresden was bombed by the Allied terror bombing strategy, meanwhile, prominent military historians such as B. H. Liddell Hart compared the bombing to the methods of the 13th century Mongols. For years to come, Air Marshal Arthur Harris had been again and again under challenge to justify the attacks. He held fast to the belief that although it was near the end of the war, the military needs at that time warranted the bombing of this communications hub.

In 1969, Kurt Vonnegut, who witnessed the Dresden bombing, published the fictional work Slaughterhouse-Five with this event as the backdrop. A film version of the work was released three years later.

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13 Feb 1945 – End of the Soviet Budapest Strategic Offensive Operation

In late Sep 1944, after the conquest of Romania and Yugoslavia had been secured, Soviet troops began to march across the southern border of Hungary. Secretly, some Hungarian leaders began dispatching envoys to the Soviet Union to negotiate an armistice, but the negotiations would take time to complete. Meanwhile, German and Hungarian forces made a push against the Soviets, striking in the area of Debrecen, Hungary’s second-largest city, inflicting 25,000 Soviet casualties and destroying 600 tanks. In response, the Soviet 2nd Ukrainian Front, 3rd Ukrainian Front, and 4th Ukrainian Front commenced the Budapest Strategic Offensive Operation on 30 Oct 1944, pushing the Axis lines of defense back into the southern suburbs of Budapest by 2 Nov. On 9 Dec, Soviet troops reached the Danube River north of Budapest, and by 26 Dec Budapest had been surrounded. On 31 Dec 1944, the Hungarian Provisional Government announced that Hungary would switch sides, declaring war on Germany. On 18 Jan 1945, the Germans attempted an attack from the outside to break the siege, but it would fail; on 10 Feb, the remaining 16,000 German troops made an attempt to break out from the inside, and it would fail and would be met with extremely high casualties. Soviet troops claimed victory at Budapest on 13 Feb, thus ending the Budapest Strategic Offensive Operation although the Soviets would not complete the conquest of all of Hungary until early Apr 1945.

Soviet Marshal Rodion Malinovsky permitted, as did other top-level Soviet generals, gave his victorious troops the permission to plunder as a reward to their hard fighting. What ensued was weeks of looting, rape, and murder. Swiss diplomats stationed in Budapest, after returning to their home country, reported in May 1945 that women ages ranging from 10 to 70 were brutally raped, while virtually anything of value that could be carried away were looted, and everything that could not be carried away such as furniture and pieces of art were smashed or burned. Even embassies of neutral countries did not escape harm; the Swiss embassy, for example, saw one of its officials nearly strangled to death as the safe he was guarding, containing millions of US Dollars worth of Swiss and Hungarian currency, was emptied by Soviet soldiers.

On 6 Mar 1945, the German 2nd Panzer Army and 6th SS Panzer Army launched Operation Spring Awakening (Unternehmen Frühlingserwachen) in an attempt to either recapture the oil-producing regions in the Lake Balaton area or to destroy the oil facilities to prevent Soviet use. The German offensive would be repulsed by the Soviets.

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13 February – Today in German History

1945

  • Start of the firebombing of Dresden. On the evening of February 13, 1945, a series of Allied firebombing raids begins against the German city of Dresden, reducing the “Florence of the Elbe” to rubble and flames, and killing roughly 25,000 people. Despite the horrendous scale of destruction, it arguably accomplished little strategically, since the Germans were already on the verge of surrender.
  • During World War II, the Soviets captured Budapest, Hungary, from the German army.
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