- The Battleship Tirpitz was sunk off the coast of Norway.
At the 11th hour on the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918, the Great War ends. At 5 a.m. that morning, Germany, bereft of manpower and supplies and faced with imminent invasion, signed an armistice agreement with the Allies in a railroad car outside Compiégne, France. The First World War left nine million soldiers dead and 21 million wounded, with Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary, France, and Great Britain each losing nearly a million or more lives. In addition, at least five million civilians died from disease, starvation, or exposure.
On November 10, 1942, German troops occupy Vichy France, which had previously been free of an Axis military presence.
Since July 1940, upon being invaded and defeated by German forces, the autonomous French state had been split into two regions. One was occupied by German troops, and the other was unoccupied, governed by a more or less puppet regime centered in Vichy, a spa region about 200 miles southeast of Paris, and led by Gen. Philippe Petain, a World War I hero. Publicly, Petain declared that Germany and France had a common goal, “the defeat of England.” Privately, the French general hoped that by playing mediator between the Axis power and his fellow countrymen, he could keep German troops out of Vichy France while surreptitiously aiding the antifascist Resistance movement.
Petain’s compromises became irrelevant within two years. When Allied forces arrived in North Africa to team up with the Free French Forces to beat back the Axis occupiers, and French naval crews emboldened by the Allied initiative scuttled the French fleet off Toulon in southeastern France to keep it from being used by those same Axis powers. Hitler retaliated. In violation of the 1940 armistice agreement, German troops moved into southeastern-Vichy, France. From that point forward, Petain became virtually useless, and France merely a future gateway for the Allied counteroffensive in Western Europe, namely, D-Day.
The Cold War, a global power struggle between dictatorship and democracy, ended in Berlin on November 9, 1989. The course of history, however, was set in motion by decisive events outside the country long before that.
It was the global symbol of the division between East and West, for the battle between communism and capitalism: the Berlin Wall, erected by the dictatorship of the German Democratic Republic (GDR), better known as East Germany, in 1961.
Surrounded by a 155-kilometer-long (96.3-mile-long) guarded border of concrete and barbed wire, citizens in the Berlin’s West sector lived in an island of freedom in the middle of the communist GDR. And over the decades, many East Germans looked to the unreachable West in desperate longing, hoping they might one day escape.
That all changed in an instant on November 9, 1989, when a new East German travel policy was announced at a press conference live on state TV. The law announced that — effective immediately — all East German citizens were free to travel to the West. Thousands of people ran straight to the guarded border crossings in the heart of Berlin which would be opened just hours later.
The images of people celebrating together on both sides of the border flashed across the world, poignantly marking the end of German division. Less than a year later, on October 3, 1990, the country, divided into East and West after World War II, was once again unified. But that momentous historical event was made possible only by the consent of the WWII victors: the Western Allies of the US, UK, and France plus the communist Soviet Union.
Magic of Glasnost and Perestroika
Concessions made by Mikhail Gorbachev, a Soviet reformer who came to power in 1985, were key to the agreement.
Gorbachev’s policies of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (reform) were a clear break from the Brezhnev doctrine, a policy that aimed to ensure that Warsaw Pact Countries of the Soviet Union and the satellites would not diverge from the political course set out by the Kremlin.
With Gorbachev, there was a new policy: “No matter what happens in our socialist brother countries, these states are responsible for themselves.” The Soviet decision not to march into Poland, Hungary or East Germany as calls for democratic reform grew louder and louder was a decidedly different approach than in decades past. Before Gorbachev, calls for freedom in the Eastern Bloc had been brutally crushed by the Soviets: in East Germany in 1953, Hungary in 1956, and former Czechoslovakia in 1968.
Gorbachev an Inspiration to Eastern Europeans
Increasingly, civil rights activists felt emboldened to push for glasnost and perestroika in their own countries. In Poland, contacts between communist leaders and the union pro-democracy movement Solidarity which was still officially banned began as early as the Summer of 1988.
Those contacts led to the so-called Round Table Talks, in which not only members of the political opposition took part but also representatives from the country’s highly influential Catholic Church.
Among those church representatives was Karol Jozef Wojtyla, who as Pope John Paul II, openly displayed sympathy toward the Solidarity Movement during the three trips he made to his homeland as pontiff. His authority as head of the Catholic Church strengthened the belief among opponents of the communist government that a positive turn of fate might be at hand.
One important milestone happened in June 1989, when opposition candidates were allowed to participate in parliamentary elections for the first time in communist Poland’s history but with one catch. The country’s leadership, which had been in power for decades, had to be given in advance two-thirds of all parliamentary seats while the remaining third could be freely contested.
Communism’s Grip First Broken in Poland
Still, the compromise was a historic turning point as it broke the communist party’s monopoly on power. Signs of an impending watershed were also seen in other countries across the bloc. In May, the Hungarian government began dismantling surveillance equipment along its Austrian border.
That made the path dividing East and West far less dangerous thus prompting hundreds of East Germans to head westward and leave the GDR behind.
Simultaneously, during the summer of 1989, thousands of East Germans managed to leave by making their way to West German embassies across the Eastern Bloc. Discontent and subsequent pressure on the reform-averse East German government grew by the day.
In September, tens of thousands of citizens began gathering in the streets of Leipzig each Monday for demonstrations. 9 October 1989 which saw 70,000 people gather to peacefully protest for change is largely seen as the high point of the demonstration movement.
East German Leader Erich Honecker Forced Out
Protesters marched through the streets chanting “We are the people!” and “No violence!” Despite the bold demonstrations, many who marched said they were extremely fearful of how the government would react. But when the government did nothing to intervene, the opposition had the feeling they had won.
A few days later, the head of the East German state and General Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED), Erich Honecker, was forced from power and replaced by Egon Krenz, who signaled a willingness to meet with civil rights activists.
Soon after, on November 4, Berlin’s Alexanderplatz became the site of the largest demonstration in the country’s history. Some half a million people cheered and applauded as opposition figures addressed them and booed when SED politicians, including Günter Schabowski, director of the party’s East Berlin district spoke.
Dissolution of the Soviet Union
Five days later on November 9, 1989, it was Schabowski who announced East Germany’s new travel policy. In doing so, whether intentionally or not he had ordered the toppling of the Berlin Wall. Not a single shot was fired at the border. The door to freedom was flung wide open and it could never be shut again.
In the months that followed, people across the entire Eastern Bloc fought for their freedom. Things eventually came full circle when the Soviet Union collapsed in late 1991.
But the first step was taken when Gorbachev came to power in 1985. Six years later in 1991, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
On November 9, 1938, in an event that would foreshadow the Holocaust, German Nazis launch a campaign of terror against Jewish people and their homes and businesses in Germany and Austria. The violence, which continued through November 10 and was later dubbed Kristallnacht, or Night of Broken Glass, after the countless smashed windows of Jewish-owned establishments, which left approximately 100 Jews dead, 7,500 Jewish businesses damaged and hundreds of synagogues, homes, schools, and graveyards vandalized. An estimated 30,000 Jewish men were arrested, many of whom were then sent to concentration camps for several months. They were released when they promised to leave Germany. Kristallnacht represented a dramatic escalation of the campaign started by Adolf Hitler in 1933 when he became chancellor to purge Germany of its Jewish population.
The Nazis used the murder of a low-level German diplomat in Paris by a 17-year-old Polish Jew as an excuse to carry out the Kristallnacht attacks. On November 7, 1938, Ernst vom Rath was shot outside the German embassy by Herschel Grynszpan, who wanted revenge for his parents’ sudden deportation from Germany to Poland, along with tens of thousands of other Polish Jews. Following vom Rath’s death, Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels ordered German storm troopers to carry out violent riots disguised as spontaneous demonstrations against Jewish citizens. Local police and fire departments were told not to interfere. In the face of all the devastation, some Jews, including entire families, committed suicide.
In the aftermath of Kristallnacht, the Nazis blamed the Jews and fined them 1 billion marks or $400 million in 1938 dollars for vom Rath’s death. As repayment, the government seized Jewish property and kept insurance money owed to Jewish people. In its quest to create a master Aryan race, the Nazi government enacted further discriminatory policies that essentially excluded Jews from all aspects of public life.
Over 100,000 Jews fled Germany for other countries after Kristallnacht. The international community was outraged by the violent events of November 9 and 10. Some countries broke off diplomatic relations in protest, but the Nazis suffered no serious consequences and leading them to believe they could get away with the mass murder in which an estimated 6 million European Jews died.
Physicist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, 1845-1923, becomes the first person to observe X-rays, a significant scientific advancement that would ultimately benefit a variety of fields, most of all medicine, by making the invisible visible.
Adolf Hitler made his first attempt at seizing power in Germany with a failed coup in Munich that came to be known as the Beer Hall Putsch.
An assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler failed.
During World War II, Operation Torch began as U.S. and British forces landed in French North Africa.