V-1 Flying Bomb – Vengeance Weapon 1 / Vergeltungswaffe 1

The V-1 – Vengeance Weapon 1 – Flying Bomb  (German: Vergeltungswaffe 1 ) also known as the buzz bomb, or doodlebug, was an early pulse-jet-powered predecessor of the cruise missile.

  • Type – Cruise Missile.
  • Service History – 1944–1945.
    • Used by – Luftwaffe.
  • Production History –
    • Designer – Robert Lusser.
    • Manufacturer – Fieseler.
    • Unit Cost – 5,090 RM.
  • Specifications –
    • Mass – 2,150 kg (4,740 lb).
    • Length – 8.32 m (27.3 ft).
    • Width – 5.37 m (17.6 ft).
    • Height – 1.42 m (4 ft 8 in).
    • Warhead – Amatol-39 and later rockets – Trialen.
    • Warhead Weight – 850 kg (1,870 lb).
    • Detonation Mechanism – Electrical Impact Fuze.
      • Backup Mechanical Impact Fuze – Time Fuze to prevent examination of duds.
    • Engine – Argus As 109-014 Pulsejet.
    • Operational Range – 250 km (160 mi).
    • Speed – 640 km/h (400 mph).
    • Guidance System – Gyrocompass Based Autopilot.

The V-1 was developed at Peenemünde Army Research Centre by the German Luftwaffe during the Second World War. During initial development, it was known by the codename Cherry Stone. The first of the so-called Vergeltungswaffen series designed for the terror bombing of London. The V-1 was fired from launch sites along the French Pas-de-Calais and Dutch coasts. The first V-1 was launched at London on 13 June 1944, one week after and prompted by the successful Allied landing in Europe. At its peak, more than one hundred V-1s a day were fired at south-east England, 9,521 in total, decreasing in number as sites were overrun until October 1944, when the last V-1 site in range of Britain was overrun by Allied forces. This caused the remaining V-1s to be directed at the port of Antwerp and other targets in Belgium, with 2,448 V-1s being launched. The attacks stopped when the last site was overrun on 29 March 1945.

The British operated an arrangement of defenses including guns and fighter aircraft to intercept the bombs before they reached their targets as part of Operation Crossbow, while the launch sites and underground V-1 storage depots were targets of strategic bombing.

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History

In late 1936, while employed by the Argus Motoren company, Fritz Gosslau began work on the further development of remote-controlled aircraft. Argus had already developed a remote-controlled surveillance aircraft, the AS 292 with the military designation FZG 43.

On 9 November 1939, a proposal for a remote-controlled aircraft carrying a payload of 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) over a distance of 500 km (310 mi) was forwarded to the RLM (German Air Ministry). Argus worked in co-operation with Lorentz AG and Arado Flugzeugwerke to develop the project as a private venture, and in April 1940, Gosslau presented an improved study of Project Fernfeuer to the RLM, as Project P 35 Erfurt.

On 31 May, Rudolf Bree of the RLM commented that he saw no chance that the projectile could be deployed in combat conditions, as the proposed remote-control system was seen as a design weakness. Heinrich Koppenberg, the director of Argus, met with Ernst Udet on 6 January 1941 to try to convince him that the development should be continued, but Udet decided to cancel it.

Despite this, Gosslau was convinced that the basic idea was sound and proceeded to simplify the design. As an aircraft engine manufacturer, Argus lacked the capability to produce a fuselage for the project, and Koppenberg sought the assistance of Robert Lusser, chief designer and technical director at Heinkel. On 22 January 1942, Lusser took up a position with the Fieseler aircraft company. He met Koppenberg on 27 February and was informed of Gosslau’s project. Gosslau’s design used two pulsejet engines so Lusser improved the design to use a single-engine.

A final proposal for the project was submitted to the Technical Office of the RLM on 5 June and the project was renamed Fi 103, as Fieseler was to be the chief contractor. On 19 June, Generalfeldmarschall Erhard Milch gave Fi 103 production high priority, and development was undertaken at the Luftwaffe’s Erprobungsstelle coastal test center at Karlshagen, part of the Peenemünde-West facility.

By 30 August, Fieseler had completed the first fuselage, and the first flight of the Fi 103 V7 took place on 10 December 1942, when it was airdropped by an Fw 200.

The V-1 was named by The Reich journalist Hans Schwarz Van Berkl in June 1944 with Hitler’s approval.

V-1 cutaway.

Design

The V-1 was designed under the codename Kirschkern (Cherry Stone) by Lusser and Gosslau, with a fuselage constructed mainly of welded sheet steel and wings built of plywood. The simple, Argus-built pulsejet engine pulsed 50 times per second, and the characteristic buzzing sound gave rise to the colloquial names buzz bomb or doodlebug. This was a  common name for a wide variety of flying insects. It was known briefly in Germany on Hitler’s orders as Maikäfer (May Bug) and Krähe (Crow).

Argus As 014 of the V-1 flying bomb on display at the Royal Air Force Museum London.

Power Plant

Ignition of the Argus pulsejet was accomplished using an automotive-type spark plug located about 76 cm (2 ft 6 in) behind the intake shutters, with current supplied from a portable starting unit. Three air nozzles in the front of the pulsejet were at the same time connected to an external high-pressure air source that was used to start the engine. Acetylene gas was typically used for starting the engine, and very often a panel of wood or similar material was held across the end of the tailpipe to prevent the fuel from diffusing and escaping before ignition. The V-1 was fuelled by 625 liters (165 US gallons) of 75-octane gasoline.

Once the engine had been started and the temperature had risen to the minimum operating level, the external air hose and connectors were removed and the engine’s resonant design kept it firing without any further need for the electrical ignition system, which was used only to ignite the engine when starting.

The Argus As 014 also known as a resonant jet could operate at zero airspeeds because of the nature of its intake shutters and its acoustically tuned resonant combustion chamber. However, because of the low static thrust of the pulse jet engine and the very high stall speed of the small wings, the V-1 could not take off under its own power in a practically short distance, and thus needed to be ground-launched by aircraft catapult or air-launched from a modified bomber aircraft such as a Heinkel He 111.

Beginning in January 1941, the V-1’s pulsejet engine was also tested on a variety of craft, including automobiles and an experimental attack boat known as the Tornado. The unsuccessful prototype was a version of a Sprengboot, in which a boat loaded with explosives was steered towards a target ship and the pilot would leap out of the back at the last moment. The Tornado was assembled from surplus seaplane hulls connected in catamaran fashion with a small pilot cabin on the crossbeams. The Tornado prototype was a noisy underperformer and was abandoned in favor of more conventional piston-engine craft.

The engine made its first flight aboard a Gotha Go 145 on 30 April 1941.

Rear view of V-1 in IWM Duxford, showing launch ramp section.

Guidance System

The V-1 guidance system used a simple autopilot developed by Askania in Berlin to regulate altitude and airspeed. The RLM at first planned to use a radio control system with the V-1 for precision attacks, but the government decided instead to use the missile against London. A weighted pendulum system provided fore-and-aft attitude measurement to control pitch, damped by a gyrocompass, which also stabilized it. Operating power for the gyroscope platform and the flight-control actuators was provided by two large spherical compressed-air tanks, which also pressurized the fuel tank. These air tanks were charged to 150 atm (2,200 psi) before launch. With the odometer determining how far the missile would fly, it was only necessary to launch the V-1 with the ramp pointing in the approximate direction, and the autopilot controlled the flight.

There was a more sophisticated interaction between yaw, roll and other sensors: a gyrocompass set by swinging in a hangar before launch gave feedback to control the dynamics of pitch and roll, but it was angled away from the horizontal so that controlling these degrees of freedom interacted. The gyroscope remained true on the basis of feedback received from a magnetic compass and from the fore and aft pendulum. This interaction meant that rudder control was sufficient for steering, and no banking mechanism was needed. In a V-1 that landed without detonating between Tilburg and Goirle in March 1945, several rolled-up issues of the German wartime propaganda magazine Signal were found inserted into the left wing’s tubular steel spar, used for weight to preset the missile’s static equilibrium before launching. Several of the earliest V-1s to be launched were provided with a small radio transmitter using a triode valve marked S3 but equivalent to a then-current power valve type RL 2,4T1 to check the general direction of flight-related to the launching place’s and the target’s grid coordinates by radio bearing navigation.

An odometer driven by a vane anemometer on the nose determined when the target area had been reached, accurately enough for area bombing. Before launch, it was set to count backward from a value that would reach zero upon arrival at the target in the prevailing wind conditions. As the missile flew, the airflow turned the propeller, and every 30 rotations of the propeller counted down one number on the odometer. This odometer triggered the arming of the warhead after about 60 km (37 mi). When the count reached zero, two detonating bolts were fired. Two spoilers on the elevator were released, the linkage between the elevator and servo was jammed, and a guillotine device cut off the control hoses to the rudder servo, setting the rudder in neutral. These actions put the V-1 into a steep dive. While this was originally intended to be a power dive, in practice the dive caused the fuel flow to cease, which stopped the engine. The sudden silence after the buzzing alerted listeners of the impending impact. The fuel problem was quickly fixed, and when the last V-1s fell, the majority hit with power.

Initially, V-1s landed within a circle 19 miles (31 kilometers) in diameter, but by the end of the war, accuracy had been improved to about 7 miles (11 kilometers), which was comparable to the V-2 rocket.

Warhead

The warhead was 1,000 kg of Amatol-39, the same explosive used for filling other Luftwaffe 1,000 kg bombs. Later the aluminized explosive Trialen was used. Trialen fillings were identified by the warhead being painted red, although the assembled missiles were painted green or grey over this.

Fuzing was by a triple fuze system. The main fuzes were an electrical impact fuze and a mechanical backup impact fuze. These were immediate-action fuzes, the intention being to detonate the warhead on the first impact with the surface, rather than allowing itself to become buried first. This was a major difference from the V-2 and a reason for the high lethality of the V-1. Although they did not demolish buildings or deep structures as effectively as the air-dropped bombs or the deep-burying V-2, their blast effects were almost all released at the surface and caused many casualties. The electrical fuze, ZLPM 76, was mounted at the front, immediately behind the compass and the air-speed propeller. It connected to a central exploder tube through the warhead, containing the gaine and boosters. Two transverse fuze pockets, in typical German fashion, were placed in the upper surface of the warhead for the secondary fuzes, also connecting to this same tube.

To avoid the risk of this secret weapon being examined by the British, there was a third time-delay fuze. This was too short to be any sort of booby trap, just to destroy the weapon if a soft landing had not triggered the impact fuzes. These fuzing systems were very reliable, and there were almost no dud V-1s recovered.

A reconstructed starting ramp for V-1 flying bombs, Historical Technical Museum, Peenemünde, 2009.

Launch Ramp

Ground-launched V-1s were typically propelled up an inclined launch ramp by an apparatus known as a Dampferzeuger (Steam Generator), which reacted stabilised hydrogen peroxide and potassium permanganate (T-Stoff and Z-Stoff), the same combination of chemicals used as propellants for the Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet rocket plane and the Walter HWK 109-500 Starthilfe RATO rocket booster unit. Ramp-launch velocity for an operational V-1 was 580 km/h (360 mph) as it left the end of the launch ramp.

The original design for launch sites included a number of hangars or storage garages, preparation and command buildings, and the launch ramp, all of which were easily identifiable from aerial photographs resulting in bombing attacks on the sites. Launching needed a steam generator.

V-1 launch ramp recreated at the Imperial War Museum, Duxford.

100 liters  (26 US gal) of hydrogen peroxide and potassium permanganate was later used in place of steam, whereby the V-1 was thrown into the air using a system similar to that used on an aircraft carrier to launch planes. A light design utilized a small 7.5 m or 25 ft preparation building, a small firing-control room and the 36 meters (39 yds) launch ramp, which was supplied in kit form, with legs resting in concrete recesses.

Experimental and Long-Range Variants

V-1 Fieseler Fi 103 in flight.

Late in the war, several air-launched piloted V-1s, known as Reichenbergs, were built, but these were never used in combat. Hanna Reitsch made some flights in the modified V-1 Fieseler Reichenberg when she was asked to find out why test pilots were unable to land it and had died as a result. She discovered, after simulated landing attempts at high altitude, where there was air space to recover, that the craft had an extremely high stall speed, and the previous pilots with little high-speed experience had attempted their approaches much too slowly. Her recommendation of much higher landing speeds was then introduced in training new Reichenberg volunteer pilots. The Reichenbergs were air-launched rather than fired from a catapult ramp, as erroneously portrayed in the film Operation Crossbow.

Model of an Arado Ar 234 carrying a V-1 at the Technikmuseum Speyer.

There were plans, not put into practice, to use the Arado Ar 234 jet bomber to launch V-1s either by towing them aloft or by launching them from a piggyback position in the manner of the Mistel, but in reverse atop the aircraft. In the latter configuration, a pilot-controlled, hydraulically operated dorsal trapeze mechanism would elevate the missile on the trapeze’s launch cradle about 8 feet (2.4 m) clear of the 234’s upper fuselage. This was necessary to avoid damaging the mother craft’s fuselage and tail surfaces when the pulsejet ignited, as well as to ensure a clean airflow for the Argus motor’s intake. A somewhat less ambitious project undertaken was the adaptation of the missile as a flying fuel tank (Deichselschlepp) for the Messerschmitt Me 262 jet fighter, which was initially test-towed behind a He 177A Greif bomber. The pulsejet, internal systems, and warhead of the missile were removed, leaving only the wings and basic fuselage, now containing a single large fuel tank. A small cylindrical module, similar in shape to a finless dart, was placed atop the vertical stabilizer at the rear of the tank, acting as a center of gravity balance and attachment point for a variety of equipment sets. A rigid towbar with a pitch pivot at the forward end connected the flying tank to the Me 262. The operational procedure for this unusual configuration saw the tank resting on a wheeled trolley for take-off. The trolley was dropped once the combination was airborne, and explosive bolts separated the towbar from the fighter upon exhaustion of the tank’s fuel supply. A number of test flights were conducted in 1944 with this set-up, but inflight porpoising of the tank, with the instability transferred to the fighter, meant that the system was too unreliable to be used. An identical utilization of the V-1 flying tank for the Ar 234 bomber was also investigated, with the same conclusions reached. Some of the flying fuel tanks used in trials utilized a cumbersome fixed and spatted undercarriage arrangement, which merely increased the drag and stability problems already inherent in the design.

One variant of the basic Fi 103 design did see operational use. The progressive loss of French launch sites as 1944 proceeded and the area of territory under German control shrank meant that soon the V-1 would lack the range to hit targets in England. Air launching was one alternative utilized, but the most obvious solution was to extend the missile’s range. Thus the F-1 version developed. The weapon’s fuel tank was increased in size, with a corresponding reduction in the capacity of the warhead. Additionally, the nose cones and wings of the F-1 models were made of wood, affording a considerable weight saving. With these modifications, the V-1 could be fired at London and nearby urban centers from prospective ground sites in the Netherlands. Frantic efforts were made to construct a sufficient number of F-1s in order to allow a large-scale bombardment campaign to coincide with the Ardennes Offensive, but numerous factors such as bombing of the factories producing the missiles, shortages of steel and rail transport, the chaotic tactical situation Germany was facing at this point in the war, etc. delayed the delivery of these long-range V-1s until February/March 1945. Beginning on 2 March 1945, slightly more than three weeks before the V-1 campaign finally ended, several hundred F-1s were launched at Britain from Dutch sites under Operation Zeppelin. Frustrated by increasing Allied dominance in the air, Germany also employed V-1s to attack the RAF’s forward airfields, such as Volkel, in the Netherlands.

There was also a turbojet-propelled upgraded variant proposed, meant to use the Porsche 109-005 low-cost turbojet engine with about 500 kg (1,100 lb) thrust.

Almost 30,000 V-1s were made; by March 1944, they were each produced in 350 hours including 120 for the autopilot, at a cost of just 4% of a V-2, which delivered a comparable payload. Approximately 10,000 were fired at England with 2,419 reaching London, killing about 6,184 people and injuring 17,981 The greatest density of hits was received by Croydon, on the south-east fringe of London. Antwerp, Belgium was hit by 2,448 V-1s from October 1944 to March 1945.

Japanese Developments

In 1943, an Argus pulsejet engine was shipped to Japan by u-boat. The Aeronautical Institute of Tokyo Imperial University and the Kawanishi Aircraft Company conducted a joint study of the feasibility of mounting a similar engine on a piloted plane. The resulting design was named Baika (Plum Blossom) but bore no more than a superficial resemblance to the Fi 103. Baika never left the design stage but technical drawings and notes suggest that several versions were considered such as an air-launched version with the engine under the fuselage, a ground-launched version that could take off without a ramp and a submarine-launched version with the engine moved forward.

Intelligence Reports

The codename Flakzielgerät 76—Flak target apparatus helped to hide the nature of the device, and some time passed before references to FZG 76 were linked to the V-83 pilotless aircraft being an experimental V-1 that had crashed on Bornholm in the Baltic and to reports from agents of a flying bomb capable of being used against London. Importantly, the Polish Home Army intelligence contributed information on V-1 construction and a place of development at Peenemünde. Initially, British experts were skeptical of the V-1 because they had considered only solid-fuel rockets, which could not attain the stated range of 130 miles (210 kilometers). However, they later considered other types of engines, and by the time German scientists had achieved the needed accuracy to deploy the V-1 as a weapon, British intelligence had a very accurate assessment of it.

A German crew rolls out a V-1.

Operational History

The first complete V-1 airframe was delivered on 30 August 1942, and after the first complete As.109-014 was delivered in September, the first glide test flight was on 28 October 1942 at Peenemünde, from under a Focke-Wulf Fw 200. The first powered trial was on 10 December, launched from beneath a He 111.

The LXV Armeekorps z.b.V. formed during the last days of November 1943 in France commanded by General der Artillerie z.V. Erich Heinemann was responsible for the operational use of V-1.

The conventional launch sites could theoretically launch about 15 V-1s per day, but this rate was difficult to achieve on a consistent basis. The maximum rate achieved was 18. Overall, only about 25% of the V-1s hit their targets, the majority being lost because of a combination of defensive measures, mechanical unreliability or guidance errors. With the capture or destruction of the launch facilities used to attack England, the V-1s were employed in attacks against strategic points in Belgium, primarily the port of Antwerp.

Launches against Britain were met by a variety of countermeasures, including barrage balloons and aircraft such as the Hawker Tempest and Gloster Meteor. These measures were so successful that by August 1944 about 80% of V-1s were being destroyed. The Meteors, although fast enough to catch the V-1s, suffered frequent cannon failures, and accounted for only 13. In all, about 1,000 V-1s were destroyed by aircraft.

The intended operational altitude was originally set at 2,750 m (9,000 ft). However, repeated failures of a barometric fuel-pressure regulator led to it being changed in May 1944, halving the operational height, thereby bringing V-1s into the range of the Bofors guns commonly used by Allied AA units.

A German Luftwaffe Heinkel He 111 H-22. This version could carry FZG 76 (V1) flying bombs, but only a few aircraft were produced in 1944. Some were used by bomb wing KG 3.

The trial versions of the V-1 were air-launched. Most operational V-1s were launched from static sites on land, but from July 1944 to January 1945, the Luftwaffe launched approximately 1,176 from modified Heinkel He 111 H-22s of the Luftwaffe’s Kampfgeschwader 3 (3rd Bomber Wing, the Blitz Wing) flying over the North Sea. Apart from the obvious motive of permitting the bombardment campaign to continue after static ground sites on the French coast were lost, air launching gave the Luftwaffe the opportunity to outflank the increasingly effective ground and air defenses put up by the British against the missile. To minimize the associated risks primarily radar detection, the aircrews developed a tactic called lo-hi-lo. The He 111s would, upon leaving their airbases and crossing the coast, descend to an exceptionally low altitude. When the launch point was neared, the bombers would swiftly ascend, fire their V-1s, and then rapidly descend again to the previous wave-top level for the return flight. Research after the war estimated a 40% failure rate of air-launched V-1s, and the He 111s used in this role were vulnerable to night-fighter attacks, as the launch lit up the area around the aircraft for several seconds. The combat potential of air-launched V-1s dwindled during 1944 at about the same rate as that of the ground-launched missiles, as the British gradually took the measure of the weapon and developed increasingly effective defense tactics.

A Spitfire using its wingtip to topple a V-1 flying bomb.

Last V-1 Attacks Against England

By September 1944, the V-1 threat to England was temporarily halted when the launch sites on the French coast were overrun by the advancing Allied armies. 4,261 V-1s had been destroyed by fighters, anti-aircraft fire, and barrage balloons. The last enemy action of any kind on British soil occurred on 29 March 1945, when a V-1 struck Datchworth in Hertfordshire.

Use Against Belgium

The attacks on Antwerp and Brussels began in October 1944 with the last V-1 launched against Antwerp on 30 March 1945. The shorter range improved the accuracy of the V-1 which was six miles deviation per hundred miles of flight, the flight level was also reduced to around 3,000 ft.

The Port of Antwerp was recognized by both the German and Allied high commands as a very important port. It was essential logistically for the further progression of Allied armies into Germany, although initially, Montgomery had not given high priority to the seizure of the Scheldt estuary giving access to the port.

Assessment

Unlike the V-2, the V-1 was a cost-effective weapon for the Germans as it forced the Allies to spend heavily on defensive measures and divert bombers from other targets. More than 25% of Combined Bomber Offensive’s bombs in July and August 1944 were used against V-weapon sites, often ineffectively. In early December 1944, American General Clayton Bissell wrote a paper that argued strongly in favor of the V-1 when compared with conventional bombers.

The statistics of this report, however, have been the subject of some dispute. The V-1 missiles launched from bombers were often prone to exploding prematurely, occasionally resulting in the loss of the aircraft to which they were attached. The Luftwaffe lost 77 aircraft in 1,200 of these sorties.

Post War

After the war, the armed forces of France, the Soviet Union, and the United States experimented with the V-1.

France

After reverse-engineering captured V-1s in 1946, the French began producing copies for use as target drones, starting in 1951. These were called the ARSAERO CT 10 and were smaller than the V-1. The CT 10 could be ground-launched using solid rocket boosters or air-launched from a LeO 45 bomber. More than 400 were produced, some of which were exported to the UK, Sweden, and Italy.

Soviet Union

The Soviet Union captured V-1s when they overran the Blizna test range in Poland, as well as from the Mittelwerk. The 10Kh was their copy of the V-1, later called Izdeliye 10. Initial tests began in March 1945 at a test range in Tashkent, with further launches from ground sites and from aircraft of improved versions continuing into the late 1940s. The inaccuracy of the guidance system, when compared with new methods such as beam-riding and TV guidance, saw development end in the early 1950s.

The Soviets also worked on a piloted attack aircraft based on the Argus pulsejet engine of the V-1 in the latter stages of the war which began as a German project called the Junkers EF 126 Lilli. The Soviet development of the Lilli ended in 1946 after a crash that killed the test pilot.

A KGW-1 being fired from USS Cusk in 1951.

 

United States

The United States reverse-engineered the V-1 in 1944 from salvaged parts recovered in England during June. By 8 September, the first of thirteen complete prototype Republic-Ford JB-2 Loons was assembled at Republic Aviation. The United States JB-2 was different from the German V-1 in only the smallest of dimensions. The wingspan was only 2.5 in (6.4 cm) wider and the length was extended less than 2 ft (0.61 m). The difference gave the JB-2 60.7 square feet (5.64 m2) of the wing area versus 55 square feet (5.1 m2) for the V-1.

A naval type version, designated KGW-1, was developed to be launched from LSTs as well as escort carriers (CVEs) and long-range 4-engine reconnaissance aircraft. Waterproof carriers for the KGW-1 were developed for launches of the missile from surfaced submarines. Both the USAAF JB-2 and Navy KGW-1 were put into production and were planned to be used in the Allied Invasion of Japan (Operation Downfall). However, the surrender of Japan obviated the need for its use. After the end of the war, the JB-2/KGW-1 played a significant role in the development of more advanced surface-to-surface tactical missile systems such as the MGM-1 Matador and later MGM-13 Mace.

Operators

  • Nazi Germany – Luftwaffe.
War Memorial in Greencastle, Indiana.

Surviving V-1s

  • Australia – The Australian War Memorial in Canberra, Australia.
  • Belgium – The Stampe et Vertongen Museum at Antwerp International Airport has 2 V1’s on display: 1 complete (serial 256978) that was used as didactical material by the Germans, and 1 partial which got shot down but did not explode.
  • Canada – The Atlantic Canada Aviation Museum in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
  • Denmark – The Danish Defence Museum Tøjhusmuseet.
  • France –
    • The Grand Bunker Museum in Ouistreham, near Caen and Sword Beach, displays a V1 flying bomb.
    • Blockhaus d’Éperlecques, near Saint-Omer. Although this was intended as a V2 launch site the museum on the site has a display devoted to the V1, including a V1 cruise missile and an entire launch ramp.
    • Le Val Ygot at Ardouval, north of Saint-Saëns. Disabled by Allied bombing in December 1943, before completion. Remains of blockhouses, with recreated launch ramp and mock V1.
    • La Coupole, near Saint-Omer, has a V-1 that it was lent by the Science Museum in London.
    • Overlord Museum in Colleville-sur-Mer, near Normandy American Cemetery and Memorial and Omaha Beach, displays a French copy of the V1 flying bomb which is actually a CT 10 target drone.
    • Tosny Museum, near Les Andelys, displays a restored Fieseler 103 A1, launched on 13 June from Pont-Montauban base and crashed in the mud without exploding after flying 10 km.
  • Germany – Deutsches Museum in München.
  • The Netherlands –
    • Overloon War Museum in Overloon.
    • Museum Vliegbasis Deelen in Schaarsbergen.
  • New Zealand –
    • Auckland War Memorial Museum, Auckland
    • Museum of Transport and Technology, Auckland.
  • Sweden – A V-1 in the Arboga Missile Museum.
  • Switzerland – A restored original V-1 on display as well as one of only six worldwide remaining original Reichenberg (Re 4-27) at the Swiss Military Museum in Full.
  • The United Kingdom –
    • V-1 at the History on Wheels Museum, Eton Wick, Windsor, UK.
    • A reproduction V-1 is located at the Eden Camp in North Yorkshire.
    • Fi-103 serial number 442795 is on display at the Science Museum, London. It was presented to the museum in 1945 by the War Office.
    • A V-1 on a partial ramp section, at the Imperial War Museum Duxford, the museum also has a partially recreated launch ramp with a mock-up V-1 displayed outside.
    • A V-1 on display with a V-2 at the RAF Museum Hendon, North London.
    • V-1 on display at the other RAF Museum site, RAF Museum Cosford.
    • Fi103 R-4 Reichenberg being the piloted version of the V1 is usually on display at Headcorn (Lashenden) Airfield’s Air Warfare Museum.
    • A V-1 is on display with a V-2 in the new Atrium of the Imperial War Museum, London.
    • The Aeropark at East Midlands Airport has a V-1 on display.
    • A V-1 replica and original launch rail and equipment is on display at the Kent Battle of Britain Museum.
  • United States –
    • A V-1 is on display at the US Army Air Defense Artillery Museum, Fort Sill, OK.
    • JB-2 is on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force in Dayton, Ohio. It was donated by the Continental Motors Corporation in 1957.
    • JB-2 is on display at the NASM’s Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, Virginia.
    • FZG-76 is on display as a war memorial at the southwest corner of the Putnam County Courthouse in Greencastle, Indiana.
    • The Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.
    • The Planes of Fame Air Museum at Chino Airport in Chino, California has a JB-2 engine, restored to full function.
    • A JB-2 is displayed indoors at the Air Force Armament Museum, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida.
    • A JB-2 Loon is on open-air display at the Museum of Alaska Transportation and Industry in Wasilla, Alaska.
    • A JB-2 Loon is also on open-air display at the Point Mugu Missile Park at Naval Air Station Point Mugu in California.
    • A JB-2 is on open-air display at the U.S. Army Artillery Museum, Fort Sill, Oklahoma.
    • A V-1 is on display at the Air Zoo in Portage, Michigan.
    • The Cosmosphere in Hutchinson, Kansas has a V-1 display that consists of a post-war hybrid of German-machined and American parts. In particular, it has a JB-2 Loon-style forward engine support fairing.
    • A V-1 located at the Fantasy of Flight aviation museum in Polk City, Florida
    • The U.S. Space & Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama displays a JB-2 Loon in their Rocket Park.
    • V-1 #121536 is on display at the Pima Air and Space Museum, in Tucson, Arizona.
    • A V-1 and Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg are on display at the Flying Heritage Collection.
    • A V-1 is on display at the Military Aviation Museum in Virginia Beach, VA.
    • A JB-2 is on open-air display in Milford, Illinois.
    • A V-1 is on display at the Museum of Flight in Seattle, WA.
A V-1 on display in Musée de l’Armée.
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