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Max Heinrich Sachsenheimer, 5 December 1909 – 2 June 1973, was a German Generalmajor, serving during World War II. He was also a recipient of the Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords. The Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross and its higher grade Oak Leaves and Swords was awarded to recognize extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership.
Ernst Ferdinand Sauerbruch, 3 July 1875 – 2 July 1951, was a German surgeon and general. Sauerbruch was born in Barmen (now a district of Wuppertal), Germany. He studied medicine at the Philipps University of Marburg, the University of Greifswald, the Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, and the University of Leipzig, from the last of which he graduated in 1902. He went to Breslau in 1903, where he developed the Sauerbruch chamber, a pressure chamber for operating on the open thorax, which he demonstrated in 1904. This invention was a breakthrough in thorax medicine and allowed heart and lung operations to take place at greatly reduced risk. As a battlefield surgeon during World War I, he developed several new types of limb prostheses, which for the first time enabled simple movements to be executed with the remaining muscle of the patient.
In 1937, he became a member of the newly established Reichsforschungsrat (Reich Research Council) that supported “research projects” of the SS, including experiments on prisoners in the concentration camps. As head of the General Medicine Branch of the RRC, he personally approved the funds which financed August Hirt’s experiments with mustard gas on prisoners at Natzweiler concentration camp from 1941 until 1944. However, he was one of the few University professors who publicly spoke out against the NS-Euthanasia program T4. In 1942, he became Surgeon General to the army. In mid-September 1943, Sauerbruch was awarded the Knight’s Cross of the War Merit Cross with Swords. On 12 October 1945, he was charged by the Allies for having contributed to the Nazi dictatorship, but not convicted for lack of evidence.
Major General Walter Scherff, 1 November 1898 – 24 May 1945, was a German army officer and military historian appointed by Adolf Hitler to the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht in May 1942 to compile the history of the war.
He served in a Panzer Battalion and was promoted Oberstleutnant in 1939, Oberst in September 1941 and Generalmajor in September 1943. He was injured in 1944 by the 20 July plot bomb at the Wolf’s Lair headquarters in Rastenburg, East Prussia.
A great admirer of Hitler, he was captured by the Americans and shot himself after the German surrender.
Scherff was responsible for the destruction of parts of the complete stenographic record of Hitler’s military conferences despite not having the authority to do so. Those copies under the administration of the Stenographic Service were ordered burned early in May 1945, at his direction. His personal copies were also “probably” burned, according to historians, as “Scherff made it plain that his opinion of Hitler as a general had changed, and he strongly criticized the military strategy of the last few years.”
Fritz Schlieper, 4 August 1892 – 4 June 1977, was a German military officer who served during World War I and World War II, eventually gaining the rank of Generalleutnant.
Gustav Richard Ernst Schmidt, 24 April 1894 – 7 August 1943, was a highly decorated Generalleutnant in the Wehrmacht during World War II. He was also a recipient of the Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves. The Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross and its higher grade Oak Leaves was awarded to recognize extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership. Gustav Schmidt committed suicide on 7 August 1943 to avoid capture by Soviet troops.
Arthur Schmidt, 25 October 1895 – 5 November 1987, was an officer in the German military from 1914 to 1943. He attained the rank of Generalleutnant during World War II, and is best known for his role as the Sixth Army’s chief of staff in the Battle of Stalingrad in 1942–43, during the final stages of which he became its de facto commander, playing a large role in executing Hitler’s order that it stands firm despite being encircled by the Red Army. He was a prisoner of war in the Soviet Union for twelve years and was released following West German chancellor Konrad Adenauer’s visit to Moscow in 1955.
Rudolf Schmidt, 12 May 1886 – 7 April 1957, was a Panzer General in the German army during World War II who served as the Commander of the 2nd Panzer Army on the Eastern Front. He was also a recipient of the Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves (German: Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub). The Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross and its higher grade Oak Leaves was awarded to recognize extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership.
Erich Schopper, 2 July 1892 – 18 August 1978, was a German general in the Wehrmacht during World War II. He was a recipient of the Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross awarded on 30 April 1943 as Generalleutnant and commander of 81. Infanterie-Division.
Albrecht Schubert, 23 June 1886 – 26 November 1966, was a German general during World War II. He was a recipient of the Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross of Nazi Germany.
Adelbert Schulz, 20 December 1903 – 28 January 1944, was a Generalmajor (Major General) and division commander in the German Wehrmacht during World War II. He was one of 27 people to be awarded the Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub, Schwertern und Brillanten) and one of the youngest German generals. The Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross and its higher grade the Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds were awarded to recognize extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership. At the time of its presentation to Schulz, it was Germany’s highest military decoration. He took part in the occupations of Austria and the Sudetenland. During the western campaign and in 1940 was promoted to captain. He participated in the invasion of Belgium, attacks on French and British positions and assisted in the breakthrough to Cherbourg, serving under General Erwin Rommel. On the 29 September 1940 he received the Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross. As part of Army Group Centre, in Klin, Schulz attacked a Soviet force eight times larger than his own. Despite being outnumbered he covered the retreat of German troops and the evacuation of a field hospital with more than 4,000 wounded. For these actions, he was awarded the Oak Leaves to his Knights Cross on 31 December 1941. On 6 August 1943, he received the Swords to his Knight’s Cross and was promoted to colonel. The 7th Panzer-Division subordinated to the 4th Panzer Army under the command of Hermann Hoth started its counteroffensive against the recently evacuated city of Kharkov (Kharkiv) on 11 March 1943. Adelbert Schulz, who had just recently before been put in command of the Panzer-Regiment 25, led his Kampfgruppe in one of the most successful engagements of the “Gespensterdivision” (Ghost Division) — His soldiers destroyed more than 100 enemy tanks and many artillery positions during the annihilation of the Red Army’s 3rd Tank Army. On 14 December, Schulz received a radio message that he would receive the Diamonds to the Ritterkreuz, and was told to report to the Führer’s headquarters. Schulz refused to go on the grounds that he was too busy fighting on the eastern front and had no time to receive it. The honor was eventually awarded to him on 9 January 1944, and he was promoted to major general and made division commander in charge of Rommel’s former division. Generalmajor Adelbert Schulz led the tanks of the 7th Panzer-Division in an attack against the enemy positions at Shepetivka on 28 January 1944. Standing in the opened hatch of his tank, Schulz was hit by artillery shrapnel in the head. Schulz succumbed to his injuries the same day even though he had immediately been evacuated to a field hospital. His death was announced on 30 January 1944 in the Wehrmachtbericht.
Karl Friedrich “Fritz” Wilhelm Schulz, 15 October 1897 – 30 November 1976, was a German general of infantry, serving during World War II and recipient of the Knight’s Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords. The Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross and its higher grade Oak Leaves and Swords was awarded to recognize extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership.
Otto Schünemann, 6 October 1891 – 29 June 1944, was a Generalleutnant in the Wehrmacht during World War II, and one of only 882 recipients of the Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves. The Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross and its higher grade Oak Leaves was awarded to recognize extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership. Otto Schünemann was killed on 29 June 1944 in Pagost, Belarus during Operation Bagration. Otto Schünemann commanded the XXXIX. Panzer-Korps for only one day before being killed, he was replacing the previous commander General der Artillerie Robert Martinek who was killed 28 June 1944.
Johann Sinnhuber, 27 March 1887 – 23 October 1979, was a highly decorated General der Artillerie in the Wehrmacht during World War II who commanded the LXXXII Armeekorps. He was also a recipient of the Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross. The Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross was awarded to recognize extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership.
Hans Speidel, 28 October 1897 – 28 November 1984, was a German general during World War II and the Cold War. The former chief of staff to Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, Speidel was a nationalist conservative who agreed with the territorial aspects of the Nazi regime’s policies but strongly disagreed with their racial policies. This led him to participate in the July 20 Plot to assassinate Hitler, after which he was jailed by the Gestapo. At the end of the world war, he escaped from Nazi prison and went into hiding. After the world war, Speidel emerged as one of the leading German military leaders during the early Cold War. He served as Supreme Commander of the NATO ground forces in Central Europe from 1957 to 1963, as the first German NATO commander during the Cold War, and with headquarters at the Palace of Fontainebleau in Paris. He was also a military historian.
Adolf Strauß, 6 September 1879 – 20 March 1973, was a general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
As commander of the II Army Corps, Strauß participated in the German Invasion of Poland. On 30 May 1940, he was appointed the commander of the 9th Army in France. Strauß participated in Operation Barbarossa with Army Group Centre. In January 1942, he was replaced in command of the 9th Army by Walter Model following the initial breakthrough of the Soviet forces during the commencement of the Rzhev Battles. He died on 20 March 1973 in Lübeck.
Karl Strecker, 20 September 1884 – 10 April 1973, was a German General during World War II who commanded several army corps on the Eastern Front. A career military and police professional, he fought in World War I and then served in the paramilitary Security Police of the Weimar Republic. Strecker welcomed the rise of Hitler and found favor with the regime, earning rapid promotions in the armed forces of Nazi Germany. Strecker commanded the German Army’s XI Army Corps in the Battle of Stalingrad and was the last German general to surrender his command in the city. He spent twelve years in Soviet captivity before being released in 1955.
Hermann Karl Richard Eugen Tittel, 12 November 1888 in Wallendorf, Germany – 22 August 1959, was a major in the artillery and chief of the German 69th Division in the attack on Norway in 1940. He started his military career in 1908 and served throughout the First World War, on the West Front 1914-1915 and 1917-1918 at Verdun, in Macedonia 1915-1916, and on the East Front 1916-1917.
As a colonel, he was appointed commander on 26 August 1939 of the 69. Division, just before the start of World War II. He became a General Major on October 1, 1939. During operation Weserübung-Nord, the German code name on the invasion of Norway in 1940, he led the 69. Division west of Norway. He established his headquarters in Bergen.
Hermann Tittel became General Lieutenant 1 September 1941, and on September 29th he received the command of the 169. Infantry Division, which was in Finland to attack the Russians and to intercept the railroad communications to Murmansk. He was in charge of this division until June 22, 1943, when he was appointed to lead the 70th Army Corps in Southern Norway. He was appointed Commander General on September 1, 1943, and commanded this Army Corps to May 9, 1945.
Hermann Title was arrested in Oslo and detained in English camps until May 12, 1948.
Hans Emil Julius Ludwig Karl Traut, 25 January 1895 – 9 December 1974, was a German general during World War II. He was a recipient of the Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves of Nazi Germany.
Traut surrendered to the Red Army troops in the course of the Soviet 1944 Vitebsk–Orsha Offensive. In 1947 he was convicted as a war criminal in the Soviet Union and sentenced to 25 years of forced labor. Traut was released in 1955.
Wolf-Günther Trierenberg, 18 June 1891 – 25 July 1981, was a German general during World War II who commanded several divisions. He was also a recipient of the Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross. In February–March 1945 he commanded the 347th Infantry Division in the defense of Saarbrücken.
Adolf Eduard Trowitz, 24 September 1893 – 3 January 1978, was a German general (Generalmajor) in the Wehrmacht during World War II who commanded several divisions. He was a recipient of the Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross, awarded by Nazi Germany for successful military leadership.
Trowitz surrendered to the Red Army in the course of the Soviet July 1944 Bobruysk Offensive (part of Operation Bagration). Convicted as a war criminal in the Soviet Union, he was held until 1955.