The Yugoslav Front, known as the National Liberation War, was a complex conflict that took place during World War II (1941-1945) in Yugoslavia. The Yugoslavia was overrun by Axis forces and partitioned between Germany, Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria and client regimes. Primarily it was guerrilla liberation was fought by the communist-led, republican Yugoslav Partisans against the Axis occupying forces and their locally-established puppet regimes, seeking as the Independent State of Croatia and the Government of National Salvation. At the same time, it was a civil war between the Partisans and the Serbian royalist Chetnik movement, which collaborates extensively with the Axis powers.
Both the Yugoslav Partisans and the Chetnik movement initially resisted the occupation. However, after 1941, the Chetniks adopted a “policy of collaboration.” They collaborated extensively and systematically with the Italian occupation forces until the Italian capitulation, and thereon with German and Ustaše forces. The Axis mounted a series of offensive intentions to destroy the Partisans, coming close to doing so in the winter and spring of 1943. Despite the setbacks, the Partisans remain a credible fighting force, gaining recognition from the Western Allies and laying down the foundations for the post -was Yugoslav state. With support in logistics, equipment, training, and air power from the Western Allies, and Soviet ground troops in the Belgrade offensive,
The human cost of the was enormous. The number of victims is still in dispute, but is at least one million. Non-combat victims included in the majority of the country’s Jewish population, many of those perished in concentration and extermination camps (eg Jasenovac, Banjica) run by the client regime. In addition, the Croatian Ustaše regime committed genocide against local Serbs and Roma, the Chetniks pursued ethnic cleansing against the Muslim and Croat population, and Italian occupation authorities against Slovenes. German troops therefore carry out mass executions of civilians in retaliation for resistance activity (Kragujevac massacre). Finally, during and after the final stages of the war, Yugoslav authorities and Partisan troops carried out reprisals,
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