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The Bismarck Memorial (German: Bismarck-Nationaldenkmal) in the Tiergarten in Berlin, is a prominent memorial statue dedicated to Prince Otto von Bismarck, Minister President of the Kingdom of Prussia and the first Chancellor of the German Empire. It was sculpted by Reinhold Begas. It is one of 250 memorials to Bismarck worldwide.
Chancellor of Germany
The title Chancellor has designated different offices in the history of Germany. It is currently used for the Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundeskanzler(in) der Bundesrepublik Deutschland), the head of government of Germany. The term, dating from the Early Middle Ages, is derived from the Latin term cancellarius. The modern office of chancellor evolved from the position created for Otto von Bismarck in the North German Confederation in 1867; this federal-state evolved into a German nation-state with the 1871 Unification of Germany. The role of the chancellor has varied greatly throughout Germany’s modern history. Today, the chancellor is the country’s effective leader, although, in a formal protocol, the Bundespräsident and Bundestagspräsident are ranked higher.
In German politics, the chancellor is the equivalent of a prime minister in many other countries. The chancellor is elected by the Bundestag.
The Feldherrnhalle (Field Marshals’ Hall) is a monumental loggia on the Odeonsplatz in Munich, Germany. Modeled after the Loggia dei Lanzi in Florence, it was commissioned in 1841 by King Ludwig I of Bavaria to honor the tradition of Bavarian Army.
In 1923, it was the site of the brief battle that ended Hitler’s Beer Hall Putsch. During the Nazi era, it served as a monument commemorating the death of 16 members of the Nazi party.
German Unity Day
The Day of German Unity (German: Tag der Deutschen Einheit) is the national day of Germany, celebrated on 3 October as a public holiday. It commemorates the anniversary of German reunification in 1990, when the goal of a united Germany that originated in the middle of the 19th century, was fulfilled again. Therefore, the name addresses neither the re-union nor the union, but the unity of Germany. The Day of German Unity on 3 October has been the German national holiday since 1990, when the reunification was formally completed.
An alternative choice to commemorate the reunification could have been the day the Berlin Wall came down: 9 November 1989, which coincided with the anniversary of the proclamation of the German Republic in 1918, and the defeat of Hitler’s first coup in 1923. However, 9 November was also the anniversary of the first large-scale Nazi-led pogroms against Jews in 1938 (Kristallnacht), so the day was considered inappropriate as a national holiday. Therefore, 3 October 1990, the day of the formal reunification, was chosen instead and replaced the “Day of German Unity” on 17 June, the national holiday of the Federal Republic of Germany from 1954.
The Neue Wache (English: New Guardhouse) is a building in Berlin, the capital of Germany. It serves as the “Central Memorial of the Federal Republic of Germany for the Victims of War and Dictatorship”. It is located on the north side of the Unter den Linden boulevard in the central Mitte district. Dating from 1816, the Neue Wache was designed by the architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel and is a leading example of German Greek Revival architecture. Originally built as a guardhouse for the troops of the crown prince of Prussia, the building has been used as a war memorial since 1931.
New Palace – Potsdam – Neues Palais
The New Palace (German: Neues Palais) is a palace situated on the western side of the Sanssouci park in Potsdam, Germany. The building was begun in 1763, after the end of the Seven Years’ War, under King Friedrich II (Frederick the Great) and was completed in 1769. It is considered to be the last great Prussian baroque palace.
University of Bonn
The University of Bonn (German: Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn) is a public research university located in Bonn, Germany. It was founded in its present form as the Rhein University on 18 October 1818 by Frederick William III, as the linear successor of the Kurkölnische Akademie Bonn (English: Academy of the Prince-elector of Cologne) which was founded in 1777. The University of Bonn offers a large number of undergraduate and graduate programs in a range of subjects and has 544 professors and 32,500 students. Its library holds more than five million volumes.
Among its notable alumni and faculty are seven Nobel Laureates, three Fields Medalist, twelve Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize winners, Prince Albert, Pope Benedict XVI, Frederick III, Karl Marx, Heinrich Heine, Friedrich Nietzsche, Konrad Adenauer, and Joseph Schumpeter.
The Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2016 and the Academic Ranking of World Universities 2015 ranked the University of Bonn as one of the 100 best universities in the world.
Volkstrauertag – Memorial Day – Day of the Armed Freedom
Volkstrauertag is a commemoration day in Germany two Sundays before the first day of Advent. It commemorates members of the armed forces of all nations and civilians who died in armed conflicts, to include victims of violent oppression. It was first observed in its modern form in 1952. Until 1945, the day was called Memorial Day from 1939-1945 and also called the Day of the Armed Freedom.