October 24, 1648


The final Treaty of Westphalia is signed, ending the Thirty Years War (1618-1648). The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in Osnabrück and Münster. These treaties ended the Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years’ War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the independence of the Dutch Republic. The treaties did not restore the peace throughout Europe, however; France and Spain remained at war for the next eleven years. But the peace of Westphalia at least created a basis for national self-determination.

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