A coup launched in Berlin by a group of radical Marxist-Communist revolutionaries is brutally suppressed by right-wing paramilitary units from January 10 to January 15, 1919; the group’s leaders, Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg, are executed.
Germany’s long, ultimately losing struggle on the battlefield—culminating in the signing of the armistice in November 1918—and dismal conditions on the home front, including severe food shortages, caused many German socialists to turn away from the Social Democratic Party, which had supported the war effort in 1914 in the hopes that reform would follow a German victory. Although still the largest party in the Reichstag government, the Social Democrats saw their membership fall from over a million in 1914 to a quarter of that number in 1917.
By that time, a minority had broken off from the party and formed their own, the Independent Socialist Party. Luxemburg and Liebknecht led the Spartacists, the Marxist, revolutionary core group of the new party, which held firmly to the belief that German participation in the war was only justified in the case of a purely defensive conflict. In 1916, Luxemburg—under the nom de guerre Junius—had published a treatise in which she denied that the Great War was defensive for Germany, claiming instead that it was driven by imperialist, capitalist interests. Social democracy had failed the German working class, Luxemburg claimed, and the only solution was the international class revolution, such as that envisioned by Vladimir Lenin and begun by the Bolsheviks in Russia in 1917.
On January 6, 1919, just weeks before the peace conference that would determine Germany’s future opened in Paris, the Spartacists gathered in Berlin to begin a revolution. Luxemburg urged her followers not to attempt a coup before they mustered sufficient popular support, but she was unable to restrain them. The rebels launched their attacks on January 10. In the conflict that ensued, both Luxemburg and Liebknecht were captured and killed. Her body, thrown into a canal, was not retrieved until five months later.
In an attempt to delay the Allied advance toward Rome, Italy, German forces set up a series of defensive lines, collectively called the Winter Line, that began with the southern-most Volturno Line to the northern-most Rome Switch Line, with the Gustav Line intending to be the strongest. The Winter Line was mainly constructed by members of the German Organization Todt, featuring many gun pits, concrete bunkers, machine gun nests, minefields, and other defensive structures, manned by troops of 15 German divisions.
In the first week of Oct 1943, British infantry crossed the Biferno River on the Adriatic Sea coast of Italy, reaching the eastern end of the southern-most Volturno Line, also known as Viktor Line; a German armor counterattack on 4 Oct nearly pushed the infantrymen back across the river, but British engineers were able to set up a bridge in time to bring up Canadian and British tanks to the front to counter the German counterattack. By 6 Oct, the territory lost to the German counterattack was regained, and the British and Canadian troops would gradually push north toward the Barbara Line. On the western end of the Volturno Line, the US 5th Army crossed the Volturno River during the night of 12 Oct and advanced through a series of delay action engagements.
The next defensive line, Barbara Line, was reached by Allies on 2 Nov, near-simultaneously on the Tyrrhenian Sea coast by US 5th Army and on the Adriatic Sea coast by British 8th Army. In early Dec, on the western side, German troops fell back to the intermediate Bernhardt Line, also known as Reinhard Line, while on the eastern side the Germans fell back to the main Gustav Line.
The US 5th Army attacked the Bernhardt Line on 1 Dec 1943, using both US and British troops; Monte Camino and the surroundings were captured after eight days of heavy combat. On 10 Dec, US troops captured the peaks surrounding the Mignano Gap; despite gaining the advantageous terrain, the Americans could not drive the Germans out of the valley until 16 Dec, and fighting in this general area would last until the end of the year.
The British 8th Army attack on the Gustav Line began on 28 Nov 1943, one week behind schedule due to heavy rains. On 5 Dec, Canadian 1st Infantry Division under Major-General Christopher Vokes launched an attack at the German defenses along the Moro River; meanwhile, New Zealand 2nd Division marched toward Orsogna. Although the advance across the lines south of the Gustav Line had been costly in terms of casualties, the movement had been relatively swift, and the Allied leadership expected the same from the British 8th Army at the Gustav Line. As Route 5, the main highway linking Pescara on the east coast with Rome to the west was situated less than 30 miles from the Gustav Line, several German divisions, including the tough 1st Parachute Division and 5th Mountain Division, were prepared the stand their ground. At 0000 hours on 5 Dec, Canadian troops attacked toward Villa Rogatti, immediately engaging in heavy fighting, but were able to capture the town before dawn; the mid-morning counterattack by German tanks was repulsed, but the Canadians suffered high casualties and had to abandon Villa Rogatti. A similar scene played out at San Leonardo and San Donato on the following day. In the afternoon of 8 Dec, a renewed attack was launched at San Leonardo after a two-hour artillery bombardment, finally securing a bridgehead by sundown; overnight, troops of Royal Canadian Engineers built a bridge over the Moro River to allow tanks and supply trucks to reinforce the bridgehead. San Leonardo was captured by mid-morning on 9 Dec, and remaining German forces, after holding out in positions surrounding the town for the length of the day, fell back northward about 3 miles toward the area later to be nicknamed “The Gully”.
Meanwhile, New Zealand troops attacked Orsogna starting on 7 Dec, with British paratroopers in support; this attack would fail to dislodge German defenders and would be called off on the following day.
Three Canadian battalions attacked “The Gully” on 10 Dec, capturing Vino Ridge, but over the next three days, they would suffer heavy casualties against stubborn defense by troops of German 90th Panzergrenadier Division. On 13 Dec, however, German strength began to be dwindling, and German 1st Parachute Division was moved up to relieve 90th Panzergrenadier Division. At dawn on 14 Dec, Canadian troops attempted to flank “The Gully” by attacking Casa Berardi to the west, capturing the roads leading into the town by 0750 hours and then the town itself in the afternoon.
After sundown on 13 Dec, 17th Infantry Brigade of Indian 8th Division toward Caldari; the fighting lasted through the following day, capturing roads between Ortona and Orsogna. By the evening on 15 Dec, the Indian troops began to make considerable breakthroughs, complemented by New Zealand troops’ favorable progress at Orsogna. On 16 Dec, the Germans launched a counterattack at positions held by New Zealand at 0315 hours, which would be repulsed, exhausting both sides in the process.
In the morning of 18 Dec, Canadian artillery pieces mounted a heavy barrage on German positions in “The Gully”, followed by an assault by Canadian and Indian troops across the Ortona-Orsogna road; this attack saw initial successes, but it was ultimately repulsed with heavy losses. Two days later, in the afternoon, the Canadians mounted yet another attack, only to find that the Germans had already evacuated “The Gully” and had fallen back into Ortona. Although Ortona would be taken by the Allies by 26 Dec, by this time British 8th Army had been exhausted. An attempt was made on the final day of 1943 to send a small party toward Pescara, but the heavy snowstorm that hindered this advance party only confirmed that the British 8th Army needed time to regroup before it could launch another offensive especially as weather conditions were about to change for the worse.
Toward the western coast of Italy, the US 5th Army was suffering from similar problems. Although the Germans were slowly being pushed back from the Bernhardt Line back toward the Gustav Line, and the Americans were indeed able to launch another offensive in the half of Jan 1944, capturing Monte Porchia, Monte Chiaia, Cervaro, and Monte Trocchio, the northward advance along the Tyrrhenian Sea coast was to be halted as well to regroup before challenging the western end of the German Gustav Line.
Birth of Martin Niemöller in Lippstadt, Germany. Niemöller served as a commander of a submarine in World War I. He undertook studies in theology after the war and became a pastor in Berlin. He was a leader in the resistance against Hitler. He was arrested in 1937 and sent to the camp in Dachau. After the war, he returned to his work in the church. His experiences in the war and his conscience led him to very active pacifism during the “Cold War”. He was given the Lenin Peace Prize in 1967 and the German “Grand Cross of Merit” in 1971.
Birth of Hasso Freiherr von Manteuffel in Potsdam, Germany. Manteuffel was a German tank commander in World War II. He was involved in developing battle strategies from the early days of the war in North Africa through the Battle of the Bulge at the end of the war. He was tried for war crimes and sentenced to 18 months in prison of which he served 4.
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Birth of Friedrich Graf von Beust in Dresden, Germany. As the foreign minister of the Austrian Empire from 1867-1871, it was he who negotiated the agreements leading to the creation of the dual monarchy and the Austro-Hungarian empire.
The Saarland votes to be a part of the German Reich.
German submarines harass shipping near the U.S. east coast.
Erich Honecker leaves Germany for Chile. Honecker had been the leader of East Germany. After the reunification, there was the possibility of trying him for crimes against humanity, but due to his cancer, he was allowed to leave Germany.
Death of Maximilian I in Wels, Austria. Maximilian was the Archduke of Austria, the German king, and the Holy Roman Emperor. He did much to expand and consolidate the Habsburg holdings. He nearly became Pope. The Pope, Julius, was very ill and a schismatic Council of Pisa offered Maximilian the position as an anti-Pope. After much reflection, he declined the offer. His greatest defeat was in a war with Switzerland. After that war through the Peace of Basel in 1499, he was forced to accept the independence of the Swiss.
Birth of Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel in Wolfenbüttel, Germany. Ferdinand was the brother-in-law of the Prussian king, Fredrich II. As a general, he was a dominant military force in Prussia’s Seven Years’ War against Austria. In the war of the American Revolution, he was offered a post by England at the head of British troops in America but he declined.
A German court in Berlin drops charges against Erich Honecker (related to shootings at the German-German border) with the justification that he was 80 years old and terminally ill.
The wreck of a World War One German submarine is gradually resurfacing on a beach in northern French after decades of being buried in the sand.
Shifting sand off Wissant, near Calais, is exposing the remains of the UC-61 which was stranded there in July 1917.
The crew flooded the vessel and abandoned it and by the 1930s the submarine had largely been buried.
It is now becoming a tourist attraction again, although the local mayor warns it may only be a fleeting visit.
Since December, two sections of the submarine have been visible at low tide about 330ft (100m) from the dunes.
“The wreck is visible briefly every two to three years, depending on the tides and the wind that leads to sand movements, but a good gust of wind and the wreck will disappear again,” said Mayor of Wissant Bernard Bracq.
However, local tour guide Vincent Schmitt believes the winds and tides could lead to even more of the UC-61 being exposed.
“All the residents of Wissant knew there was a submarine here, but the wreck is mostly silted and therefore invisible,” he said.
“Pieces reappear from time to time, but this is the first time we discover so much.”
German submarines, known as U-boats, targeted Allied shipping during World War One, sinking hundreds of vessels.
Historians say the UC-61 was credited with sinking at least 11 ships, either by laying mines or by firing torpedoes.
On its last journey, the submarine had left Zeebrugge in Belgium and was heading to Boulogne-sur-Mer and Le Havre to lay mines when it ran aground.
The 26 crewmen surrendered to French authorities.
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