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Konrad Meyer-Hetling, 15 May 1901 – 25 April 1973, was a German agronomist and SS-Oberführer. He is best known for his involvement in the development of Generalplan Ost.
Wilhelm Mohnke, 15 March 1911 – 6 August 2001, was one of the original members of the SS-Staff Guard (Stabswache) “Berlin” formed in March 1933. From those ranks, Mohnke rose to become one of Adolf Hitler’s last remaining generals. He joined the Nazi Party in September 1931.
With the SS Division Leibstandarte, Mohnke participated in the fighting in France, Poland, and the Balkans. He was appointed to command a regiment in the SS Division Hitlerjugend in 1943. He led the unit in the Battle for Caen, receiving the Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross on 11 July 1944. Mohnke was given command of his original division, the Leibstandarte, during the Battle of the Bulge in December 1944.
During the Battle of Berlin, Mohnke commanded the Kampfgruppe Mohnke and was charged with defending the Berlin government district, including the Reich Chancellery and the Reichstag. He was investigated after the war for war crimes, including allegations that he was responsible for the murder of prisoners in France in 1940, Normandy in June 1944 and Belgium in December 1944. He was never charged and died in 2001, aged 90.
Heinrich Müller, 28 April 1900 to date of death unknown, but evidence points to May 1945, was a German police official under both the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany. He became chief of the Gestapo, the political secret state police of Nazi Germany, and was involved in the planning and execution of the Holocaust. He was known as ‘Gestapo Müller’ to distinguish him from another SS general also named Heinrich Müller. He was last seen in the Führerbunker in Berlin on 1 May 1945 and remains the most senior figure of the Nazi regime who was never captured or confirmed to have died.
Arthur Nebe, 13 November 1894 – 21 March 1945, was a key functionary in the security and police apparatus of Nazi Germany.
Nebe rose through the ranks of the Berlin and Prussian police forces to become head of Nazi Germany’s Criminal Police (Kripo) in 1936, which was folded into the Reich Main Security Office (RSHA) in 1939. Prior to the 1941 German invasion of the Soviet Union, Nebe volunteered to serve as commanding officer of Einsatzgruppe B. The killing unit was deployed in the Army Group Centre Rear Area, in modern-day Belarus, and reported over 45,000 victims by November 1941. In late 1941, Nebe was posted back to Berlin and resumed his career within the RSHA. Nebe commanded the Kripo until he was denounced and executed after the failed attempt to kill Adolf Hitler in July 1944.
Following the war, Nebe’s career and involvement with the 20 July plot were the subject of several apologetic accounts by the members of the plot, who portrayed him as a professional policeman and a dedicated anti-Nazi. The notions that Nebe’s motivations were anything other than Nazi ideology have since been discredited by historians who describe him as an opportunist and an energetic, enthusiastic, and notorious mass murderer driven by racism and careerism.
Otto Ohlendorf, 4 February 1907 – 7 June 1951, was a German SS-Gruppenführer and head of the Sicherheitsdienst (SD) Inland, responsible for intelligence and security within Germany. Ohlendorf was also the commanding officer of Einsatzgruppe D, which perpetrated mass murder in Moldova, south Ukraine, the Crimea, and, during 1942, the North Caucasus. He was convicted of and executed for war crimes committed during World War II.
Artur Gustav Martin Phleps, 29 November 1881 – 21 September 1944, was an Austro-Hungarian, Romanian and German army officer who held the rank of SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Waffen-SS (lieutenant general) in the Waffen-SS during World War II. An Austro-Hungarian Army officer before and during World War I, he specialized in mountain warfare and logistics, and had been promoted to Oberstleutnant (lieutenant colonel) by the end of the war. During the interwar period, he joined the Romanian Army, reaching the rank of Major General, and also became an adviser to King Carol. After he spoke out against the government, he was sidelined and asked to be dismissed from the army.
In 1941 he left Romania and joined the Waffen-SS as an SS-Standartenführer (colonel) under his mother’s maiden name of Stolz. Seeing action on the Eastern Front as a regimental commander with the SS Motorised Division Wiking, he later raised and commanded the 7th SS Volunteer Mountain Division Prinz Eugen, raised the 13th Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Handschar (1st Croatian), and commanded the V SS Mountain Corps. Units under his command committed many crimes against the civilian population of the Independent State of Croatia, the German-occupied territory of Serbia and Italian governorate of Montenegro. His final appointment was as plenipotentiary general in south Siebenbürgen and the Banat, during which he organized the evacuation of the Volksdeutsche (ethnic Germans) of Siebenbürgen to the Reich. In addition to the Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross, Phleps was awarded the German Cross in Gold, and after he was killed in September 1944, he was awarded the Oak Leaves to his Knight’s Cross.
Oswald Ludwig Pohl, 30 June 1892 – 8 June 1951, was a Nazi official and member of the SS. He rose to the rank of SS-Obergruppenführer and was involved in the administration of German concentration camps during the Second World War. After the war, he went into hiding and then was found in 1946, was judicially tried in 1947, repeatedly appealed his case, and finally was executed by hanging in 1951.
Gerhard “Gerd” Pleiß, May 24, 1901 – February 2, 1985, was the commander of 3rd SS Division Totenkopf following the death of Theodor Eicke in February 1943. He was also a recipient of the Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords (German: Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub und Schwertern). The Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross and its higher grade Oak Leaves and Swords was awarded to recognize extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership.
He was promoted to SS-Gruppenführer und Generalleutnant der Waffen-SS on April 20, 1944. On October 30, 1944, he became the commanding officer of the 1st SS-Panzerkorps Leibstandarte and led it during the Battle of the Bulge.
After the war, Hermann Prieß was convicted of war crimes because of his involvement in the Malmedy massacre and was sentenced to 20 years imprisonment. He was released in 1954.
Johann ‘Hans’ Rattenhuber
Johann Rattenhuber, 30 April 1897 – 30 June 1957, also known as Hans Rattenhuber, was German police and SS general (Gruppenführer, i. e. Generalleutnant). Rattenhuber was the head of German dictator Adolf Hitler’s personal Reichssicherheitsdienst (Reich Security Service; RSD) bodyguard from 1933 to 1945.
Friedrich Wilhelm Rediess, 10 October 1900 – 8 May 1945, was the SS and Police Leader during the German occupation of Norway in the Second World War. He was also the Commanding General (Obergruppenführer) of all SS troops stationed in occupied Norway, assuming command on 22 June 1940 until his death in 1945.
Gruppenführer Heinrich Reinefarth, 26 December 1903 – 7 May 1979, was a Nazi German military officer during World War II and government official in FRG after the war. During the Warsaw Uprising of August 1944 his troops committed numerous war atrocities. After the war, Reinefarth became the mayor of the town of Westerland and member of the Schleswig-Holstein Landtag. Despite Polish demands for extradition, he was never convicted of any war crimes.
August Schmidhuber, 8 May 1901 – 19 February 1947was an SS-, Brigadeführer of the 7th SS Volunteer Mountain Division Prinz Eugen from 20 January 1944 to 8 May 1945, and the 21st Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Skanderbeg (1st Albanian) from May 1944 onwards.
During the anti-partisan warfare in Kosovo, Schmidhuber issued orders to kill prisoners and burn villages. Convicted of war crimes in Yugoslavia, he was executed on 27 February 1947 in Belgrade.
Max Simon, 6 January 1899 – 1 February 1961, was a German SS commander during World War II. Simon was one of the first members of the SS in the early 1930s. He rose through the ranks of the SS and became a corps commander during World War II. After the war, Simon was convicted for his role in the Marzabotto reprisal.
Felix Martin Julius Steiner, 23 May 1896 – 12 May 1966, was an Obergruppenführer in the Waffen-SS during World War II, who commanded several SS divisions and corps. He was awarded the Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords. Together with Paul Hausser, he contributed significantly to the development and transformation of the Waffen-SS into a military force made up of volunteers and conscripts from both occupied and unoccupied lands.
Steiner was chosen by Heinrich Himmler to oversee the creation of and then command the elite SS Division Wiking. In 1943, he was promoted to the command of the III (Germanic) SS Panzer Corps. On 28 January 1945, Steiner was placed in command of the 11th SS Panzer Army, which formed part of a new ad-hoc formation to protect Berlin from the Soviet armies advancing from the Vistula River.
On 21 April, during the Battle for Berlin, Steiner was placed in command of Army Detachment Steiner, while Adolf Hitler ordered Steiner to envelop the 1st Belorussian Front through a pincer movement, advancing from the north of the city. However, as his exhausted unit was outnumbered by ten to one, Steiner made it clear that he did not have the capacity for a counter-attack on 22 April during the daily situation conference in the Führerbunker.
After the capitulation of Germany, Steiner was imprisoned and indicted as part of the Nuremberg Trials. He was cleared of war crimes charges and released in 1948. He was a founding member of HIAG, a lobby group of negationist apologists, founded by former high-ranking Waffen-SS personnel in 1951 to campaign for the legal, economic and historical rehabilitation of the Waffen-SS.
Jürgen Stroop (born Josef Stroop), 26 September 1895, Detmold, Germany – 6 March 1952, Warsaw, Poland, was an SS General during World War II. He is best known for being in command against the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and for writing the Stroop Report, a book-length account of the operation. Following the defeat of Nazi Germany, Stroop was prosecuted during the Dachau Trials and convicted of murdering nine American POWs. After his extradition to the People’s Republic of Poland, Stroop was tried, convicted, and hanged for crimes against humanity.
Anton Vogler, born 1882, was a German SS – Brigadeführer and General Major in the Waffen SS. He was, among other things, Chief of Staff of SS-Oberabschnitt Süd and Deputy Commander of SS-Oberabschnitt Süd with a service center in Munich. In addition, he was Deputy Higher SS and Police ( Höhere SS and Polizeiführer, HSSPF) in the Süd office with a service center in Munich.
Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski
Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski, 1 March 1899 – 8 March 1972, was a high-ranking Schutzstaffel (SS) commander during World War II in charge of so-called anti-partisan warfare (Bandenkampf (literally: “bandit fighting”)) against “bandits” and any other persons assumed to present danger to the Nazi rule or Wehrmacht’s security in the occupied territories of Eastern Europe. It mostly involved the civilian population. In 1944 he led the brutal suppression of the Warsaw Uprising.
Despite his responsibility for numerous war crimes and crimes against humanity, Bach-Zelewski did not stand trial in Nuremberg. He was convicted for politically motivated murders after the war and died in prison in 1972.
Karl von Eberstein
Friedrich Karl Freiherr von Eberstein, 14 January 1894 – 10 February 1979, was a member of the German nobility, an early member of the Nazi Party, the SA, and the SS (introducing Reinhard Heydrich to Heinrich Himmler in July 1931). Further, he rose to become a Reichstag delegate, an HSSPF and SS-Oberabschnitt Führer (chief of the Munich Police in World War II) and was a witness at the Nuremberg Trials.
Karl von Oberkamp
Karl von Oberkamp, 30 October 1893 – 4 May 1947, was a German Waffen-SS commander and war criminal during World War II. During his SS career, he commanded the SS Division Prinz Eugen, the SS Division Nibelungen, and the V SS Mountain Corps.
Following World War II, Oberkamp was extradited to Yugoslavia, where he was tried for war crimes. He was sentenced to death and hanged in Belgrade on 4 May 1947.
Christian Ludwig Weber, 25 August 1883 in Polsingen – 11 May 1945 at Ludwigsburg and on the Swabian Alb, was from 1933/34 SS honorary leader, since 1937 inspector of the SS riding schools, most recently SS Brigadeführer, Munich councilor, and member of the Reichstag.
Theodor Wisch, 13 December 1907 – 11 January 1995, was a high-ranking member of the Waffen-SS of Nazi Germany during World War II. He was a commander of the SS Division Leibstandarte (LSSAH) and a recipient of the Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords. He assumed command of the LSSAH in April 1943. He was seriously wounded in combat on the Western Front by a naval artillery barrage in the Falaise Pocket on 20 August 1944, and replaced as division commander by SS-Brigadeführer Wilhelm Mohnke.
Fritz Witt, 27 May 1908 – 14 June 1944, was a German Waffen-SS officer who served with the 1.SS-Panzergrenadier-Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler before taking command of the 12.SS-Panzer-Division Hitlerjugend. Witt was killed by an allied naval barrage in 1944.
Karl Friedrich Otto Wolff, 13 May 1900 – 17 July 1984, was a high-ranking member of the Nazi SS, ultimately holding the rank of SS-Obergruppenführer and General of the Waffen-SS. He became Chief of Personal Staff to the Reichsführer (Heinrich Himmler) and SS Liaison Officer to Hitler until his replacement in 1943. He ended World War II as the Supreme Commander of all SS forces in Italy. After the war, Wolff was also a central witness as to the alleged plot to kidnap Pope Pius XII.